Sundry Quotes of Meister Eckhart

meister-eckhart

Sundry sayings of Meister Eckhart:

The soul must long for God in order to be set aflame by God’s love; but if the soul cannot yet feel this longing, then it must long for the longing. To long for the longing is also from God.

There never was a struggle or a battle which required greater valor than that in which a man forgets or denies himself.

He who is always alone is worthy of God, and to him who is always at home is God present, and in him who stands always in the present does God the Father bear his Son unceasingly.

God is not only the Father of all good things but he is the mother of all things as well. He is father, for he is the cause of all things and their creator. He is the mother of all things as well, for when creatures have gotten their being from him he still stays with creatures to keep them in being. If God did not remain with creatures after they had started their own life, they would most speedily fall out of being. Falling from God means falling from being into nothingness. It is not so with other causes they can with safety quit the things they cause when these things have gotten being of their own. When the house exists its builder can depart, for it is not the builder alone that makes the house the materials of it he draws from nature. But God provides the creature with the whole of what it is, with form as well as matter, so he is bound to stay with it, or it will promptly drop out of existence.

The soul is no different from Christ, except in that it has a born nature and a created nature. Christ does not have this in his eternal person. If the soul shed her born nature and her created nature, she would be all the same, just essence itself. I say, put off your creature it is easy to shed the creature, for this is a labor of love and the greater the pain the greater the joy.

Whoever has three things is beloved of God: The first is riddance of possessions the second, of friends and the third is riddance of self.

God will never give himself openly to the soul…unless she brings her husband, that is to say, her whole free will.

Some people want to see God with their eyes as they see a cow and to love him as they love their cow-they love their cow for the milk and cheese and profit it makes them. This is how it is with people who love God for the sake of outward wealth or inward comfort. They do not rightly love God when they love him for their own advantage. Indeed, I tell you the truth, any object you have on your mind, however good, will be a barrier between you and the inmost truth.

Theologia Germanica

Gruber 174

Theologia Germanica

Which sets forth many fair Lineaments of divine Truth, and says very lofty and lovely things touching a perfect life.

This work was discovered and published in 1516 by Martin Luther, who said of it that “Next to the Bible and St. Augustine, no book has ever come into my hands from which I have learnt more of God and Christ, and man and all things that are.” It has since appealed to Christians of all persuasions.
EDITED BY DR. PEIFFER FROM THE ONLY COMPLETE MANUSCRIPT YET KNOWN
Translated from the German by Susanna Winkworth
With a Preface by the Rev. Charles Kingsley, Rector of Eversley, and a Letter to the Translator by theChevalier Bunsen, D.D., D.C.L., etc.
First published as a volume of the Golden Treasury Series in 1874. New Edition 1893

Theologia Germanica

                                 CHAPTER I

     Of that which is perfect and that which is in part, and how that which is in part is done away, when that which is perfect is come.

St. Paul said, “When that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.”[6] Now mark what is “that which is perfect,” and “that which is in part.”
“That which is perfect” is a Being, who has comprehended and included all things in Himself and His own Substance, and without whom, and beside whom, there is no true Substance, and in whom all things have their Substance. For He is the Substance of all things, and is in Himself unchangeable and immoveable, and changes and moves all things else. But “that which is in part,” or the Imperfect, is that which has its source in, or springs from the Perfect; just as a brightness or a visible appearance flows out from the sun or a candle, and appears to be somewhat, this or that. And it is called a creature; and of all these “things which are in part,” none is the Perfect. So also the Perfect is none of the things which are in part. The things which are in part can be apprehended, known, and expressed; but the Perfect cannot be apprehended, known, or expressed by any
creature as creature. Therefore we do not give a name to the Perfect, for it is none of these. The creature as creature cannot know nor apprehend it, name nor conceive it.
“Now when that which is Perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.” But when doth it come? I say, when as much as may be, it is known, felt and tasted of the soul. For the lack lies altogether in us, and not in it. In like manner the sun lights the whole world, and is as near to one as another, yet a blind man sees it not; but the fault thereof lies in the blind man, not in the sun. And like as the sun may not hide its brightness, but must give light unto the earth (for heaven indeed draws its light and heat from another fountain), so also God, who is the highest Good, wills not to hide Himself from any, wheresoever He finds a devout soul, that is thoroughly purified from all creatures. For in what measure we put off the creature, in the same measure are we able to put on the Creator; neither more nor less. For if mine eye is to see anything, it must be single, or else be purified from all other things; and where heat and light enter in, cold and darkness must needs depart; it cannot be otherwise.
But one might say, “Now since the Perfect cannot be known nor apprehended of any creature, but the soul is a creature, how can it be known by the soul?” Answer: This is why we say, “by the soul as a creature.” We mean it is impossible to the creature in virtue of its creature-nature and qualities, that by which it says “I” and “myself.” For in whatsoever creature the Perfect shall be known, therein creature-nature, qualities, the I, the Self and the like, must all be lost and done away. This is the meaning of that saying of St. Paul: “When that which is perfect is come” (that is, when it is known), “then that which is in part” (to wit, creature-nature, qualities, the I, the Self, the Mine) will be despised and counted for nought. So long as we think much of these things, cleave to them with love, joy, pleasure or desire, so long remained the Perfect unknown to us.
But it might further be said, “Thou says, beside the Perfect there is no Substance, yet says again that somewhat flows out from it: now is not that which has flowed out from it, something beside it.” Answer: This is why we say, beside it, or without it, there is no true Substance. That which hath flowed forth from it, is no true Substance, and hath no Substance except in the Perfect, but is an accident, or a brightness, or a visible
appearance, which is no Substance, and hath no Substance except in the fire whence the brightness flowed forth, such as the sun or a candle.

                                 CHAPTER II

     Of what Sin is, and how we must not take unto ourselves any good Thing, seeing that it belonged unto the true Good alone.

The Scripture and the Faith and the Truth say, Sin is nothing else than the creature turned away from the unchangeable Good and takes itself to the changeable; that is to say, that it turned away from the Perfect to “that which is in part” and imperfect, and most often to itself. Now mark: when the creature claimed for its own anything good, such as Substance, Life, Knowledge, Power, and in short whatever we should call good, as if it were that, or possessed that, or that were itself, or that proceeded from it, — as often as this comes to pass, the creature goes astray. What else did the devil do, or what was his fall else besides that he claimed for himself to be also somewhat, and would have it that somewhat was his, and somewhat was due to him? This setting up of a claim and his I and Me and Mine, these were his going astray, and his fall. And thus it is to this day.

                                CHAPTER III

     How Man’s Fall and going astray must be amended as Adam’s Fall was.

What else did Adam do but this same thing? It is said, it was because Adam ate the apple that he was lost, or fell. I say, it was because of his claiming something for his own, and because of his I, Mine, Me, and the like. Had he eaten seven apples, and yet never claimed anything for his own, he would not have fallen: but as soon as he called something his own, he fell, and would have fallen if he had never touched an apple. Behold! I have fallen a hundred times more often and deeply, and gone a hundred times farther astray than Adam; and not all mankind could mend his fall, or bring him back from going astray. But how shall my fall be amended? It must be healed as Adam’s fall was healed, and on the self-same wise. By whom, and on what wise was that healing brought to pass? Mark this: man could not without God, and God should not without man. Wherefore God took human nature or manhood upon Himself and was made man, and man was made divine. Thus the healing was brought to pass. So also must my fall be healed. I cannot do the work without God, and God may not or will not without me; for if it shall be accomplished, in me, too, God must be made man; in such sort that God must take to Himself all that is in me, within and without, so that there may be nothing in me which strived against God or hindered His Work. Now if God took to Himself all men that are in the world, or ever were, and were made man in them, and they were made divine in Him, and this work were not fulfilled in me, my fall and my wandering would never be amended except it were fulfilled in me also. And in this bringing back and healing, I can, or may, or shall do nothing of myself, but just simply yield to God, so that He alone may do all things in me and work, and I may suffer Him and all His work and His divine will. And because I will not do so, but I count myself to be my own, and say “I,” “Mine,” “Me” and the like, God is hindered, so that He cannot do His work in me alone and without hindrance; for this cause my fall and my going astray remain unhealed. Behold! this all cometh of my claiming somewhat for my own.

                                 CHAPTER IV

     How Man, when he claimed any good Thing for his own, fell, and touched God in His Honor.

God says, “I will not give My glory to another.”[7] This is as much as to say, that praise and honor and glory belong to none but to God only. But now, if I call any good thing my own, as if I were it, or of myself had power or did or knew anything, or as if anything were mine or of me, or belonged to me, or were due to me or the like, I take unto myself somewhat of honor and glory, and do two evil things: First, I fall and go astray as aforesaid: Secondly, I touch God in His honor and take unto myself what belonged to God only. For all that must be called good belonged to none but to the true eternal Goodness which is God only, and whoso takes it unto himself, committed unrighteousness and is against God.

                                 CHAPTER V

     How we are to take that Saying, that we must come to be without Will, Wisdom, Love, Desire, Knowledge, and the like.

Certain men say that we ought to be without will, wisdom, love, desire, knowledge, and the like. Hereby is not to be understood that there is to be no knowledge in man, and that God is not to be loved by him, nor desired and longed for, nor praised and honored; for that were a great loss, and man were like the beasts and as the brutes that have no reason. But it meant that man’s knowledge should be so clear and perfect that he should acknowledge of a truth that in himself he neither hath nor can do any good thing, and that none of his knowledge, wisdom and art, his will, love and good works do come from himself, nor are of man, nor of any creature, but that all these are of the eternal God, from whom they all proceed. As Christ Himself says, “Without Me, ye can do nothing.”[8] St. Paul says also, “What hast thou that thou hast not received?”[9] As much as to say –nothing. “Now if thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory as if thou had not received it?” Again he says, “Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think anything as of ourselves, but our sufficiency is of God.”[10] Now when a man duly perceived these things in himself, he and the creature fall behind, and he doth not call anything his own, and the less he takes this knowledge unto himself, the more perfect doth it become. So also is it with the will, and love and desire, and the like. For the less we call these things our own, the more perfect and noble and Godlike do they become, and the more we think them our own, the baser and less pure and perfect do they become.
Behold on this sort must we cast all things from us, and strip ourselves of them; we must refrain from claiming anything for our own. When we do this, we shall have the best, fullest, clearest and noblest knowledge that a man can have, and also the noblest and purest love, will and desire; for then these will be all of God alone. It is much better that they should be God’s than the creature’s. Now that I ascribe anything good to myself, as if I were, or had done, or knew, or could perform any good thing, or that it were mine, this is all of sin and folly. For if the truth were rightly known by me, I should also know that I am not that good thing and that it is not mine, nor of me, and that I do not know it, and cannot do it, and the like. If this came to pass, I should needs cease to call anything my own.
It is better that God, or His works, should be known, as far as it be possible to us, and loved, praised and honored, and the like, and even that man should vainly imagine he loved or praised God, than that God should be altogether upraised, unloved, unhonoured and unknown. For when the vain imagination and ignorance are turned into an understanding and knowledge of the truth, the claiming anything for our own will cease of itself. Then the
man says: “Behold! I, poor fool that I was, imagined it was I, but behold! it is and was, of a truth, God!”

                                 CHAPTER VI

     How that which is best and noblest should also be loved above all Things by us, merely because it is the best.

A Master called Boetius says, “It is of sin that we do not love that which is Best.” He hath spoken the truth. That which is best should be the dearest of all things to us; and in our love of it, neither helpfulness nor in helpfulness, advantage nor injury, gain nor loss, honor nor dishonor, praise nor blame, nor anything of the kind should be regarded; but what is in truth the noblest and best of all things, should be also the dearest of all things, and that for no other cause than that it is the noblest and best.
Hereby may a man order his life within and without. His outward life: for among the creatures one is better than another, according as the Eternal Good manifested itself and worked more in one than in another. Now that creature in which the Eternal Good most manifested itself, shined forth, worked, is most known and loved, is the best, and that wherein the Eternal Good is least manifested is the least good of all creatures. Therefore when we have to do with the creatures and hold converse with them, and take note of their diverse qualities, the best creatures must always be the dearest to us, and we must cleave to them, and unite ourselves to them, above all to those which we attribute to God as belonging to Him or divine, such as wisdom, truth, kindness, peace, love, justice, and the like. Hereby shall we order our outward man, and all that is contrary to these virtues we must eschew and flee from.
But if our inward man were to make a leap and spring into the Perfect, we should find and taste how that the Perfect is without measure, number or end, better and nobler than all which is imperfect and in part, and the Eternal above the temporal or perishable, and the fountain and source above all that flows or can ever flow from it. Thus that which is imperfect and in part would become tasteless and be as nothing to us. Be assured of this:
All that we have said must come to pass if we are to love that which is noblest, highest and best.

                                CHAPTER VII

     Of the Eyes of the Spirit wherewith Man looked into Eternity and into Time, and how the one is hindered of the other in its Working.

      Let us remember how it is written and said that the soul of Christ had two eyes, a right and a left eye. In the beginning, when the soul of Christ was created, she fixed her right eye upon eternity and the Godhead, and remained in the full intuition and enjoyment of the divine Essence and Eternal Perfection; and continued thus unmoved and undisturbed by all the accidents and travail, suffering, torment and pain that ever befell the outward man.
But with the left eye she beheld the creature and perceived all things therein, and took note of the difference between the creatures, which were better or worse, nobler or meaner; and thereafter was the outward man of Christ ordered.
Thus the inner man of Christ, according to the right eye of His soul, stood in the full exercise of His divine nature, in perfect blessedness, joy and eternal peace. But the outward man and the left eye of Christ’s soul, stood with Him in perfect suffering, in all tribulation, affliction and travail; and this in such sort that the inward and right eye remained unmoved, unhindered and untouched by all the travail, suffering, grief and anguish that ever befell the outward man. It hath been said that when Christ was bound to the pillar and scourged, and when He hung upon the cross, according to the outward man, yet His inner man, or soul according to the right eye, stood in as full possession of divine joy and blessedness as it did after His ascension, or as it doth now. In like manner His outward man, or soul with the left eye, was never hindered, disturbed or troubled by the inward eye in its contemplation of the outward things that belonged to it.
Now the created soul of man hath also two eyes. The one is the power of seeing into eternity, the other of seeing into time and the creatures, of perceiving how they differ from each other as afore-said, of giving life and needful things to the body, and ordering and governing it for the best. But these two eyes of the soul of man cannot both perform their work at once; but if the soul shall see with the right eye into eternity, then the left
eye must close itself and refrain from working, and be as though it were dead.
For if the left eye be fulfilling its office toward outward things; that is, holding converse with time and the creatures; then must the right eye be hindered in its working; that is, in its contemplation. Therefore whosoever will have the one must let the other go; for “no man can serve two masters.”

                                CHAPTER VIII

     How the soul of man, while it is yet in the body, may obtain a foretaste of eternal blessedness.

It hath been asked whether it be possible for the soul, while it is yet in the body, to reach so high as to cast a glance into eternity, and receive a foretaste of eternal life and eternal blessedness. This is commonly denied; and truly so in a sense. For it indeed cannot be so long as the soul is taking heed to the body, and the things which minister and appertain thereto, and to time and the creature, and is disturbed and troubled and distracted thereby. For if the soul shall rise to such a state, she must be quite pure, wholly stripped and bare of all images, and be entirely separate from all creatures, and above all from herself. Now many think this is not to be done and is impossible in this present time. But St. Dionysius maintains that it is possible, as we find from his words in his Epistle to Timothy, where he says: “For the beholding of the hidden things of God, shall thou forsake sense and the things of the flesh, and all that the senses can apprehend, and all that reason of her own powers can bring forth, and all things created and uncreated that reason is able to comprehend and know, and shall take thy stand upon an utter abandonment of thyself, and as knowing none of the aforesaid things, and enter into union with Him who is,
and who is above all existence and all knowledge.” Now if he did not hold this to be possible in this present time, why should he teach it and enjoin it on us in this present time? But it behooved you to know that a master hath said on this passage of St. Dionysius, that it is possible, and may happen to a man often, till he become so accustomed to it, as to be able to look into eternity whenever he will. For when a thing is at first very hard to a man and strange, and seemingly quite impossible, if he put all his strength and energy into it, and persevere therein, that will afterward grow quite light and easy, which he at first thought quite out of reach, seeing that it is of no use to begin any work, unless it may be brought to a good end.
And a single one of these excellent glances is better, worthier, higher and more pleasing to God, than all that the creature can perform as a creature. And as soon as a man turned himself in spirit, and with his whole heart and mind entered into the mind of God which is above time, all that ever he hath lost is restored in a moment. And if a man were to do thus a thousand times in a day, each time a fresh and real union would take place; and in this sweet and divine work stands the truest and fullest union that may be in this present time. For he who has attained thereto, asked nothing further, for he has found the Kingdom of Heaven and Eternal Life on earth.

                                 CHAPTER IX

     How it is better and more profitable for a man that he should perceive what God will do with him, or to what end He will make use of him, than if he knew all that God had ever wrought, or would ever work through all the creatures; and how blessedness lies alone in God, and not in the creatures, or in any works.

       We should mark and know of a very truth that all manner of virtue and goodness, and even that Eternal Good which is God Himself, can never make a man virtuous, good, or happy, so long as it is outside the soul; that is, so long as the man is holding converse with outward things through his senses and reason, and doth not withdraw into himself and learn to understand his
own life, who and what he is. The like is true of sin and evil. For all manner of sin and wickedness can never make us evil, so long as it is outside of us; that is, so long as we do not commit it, or do not give consent to it.
Therefore although it be good and profitable that we should ask, and learn and know, what good and holy men have wrought and suffered, and how God hath dealt with them, and what He hath wrought in and through them, yet it were a thousand times better that we should in ourselves learn and perceive and understand, who we are, how and what our own life is, what God is and is doing in us, what He will have from us, and to what ends He will or will not make use of us. For, of a truth, thoroughly to know oneself, is above all art, for it is the highest art. If thou knows thyself well, thou art better and more praiseworthy before God, than if thou didst not know thyself, but didst understand the course of the heavens and of all the planets and stars, also the dispositions of all mankind, also the nature of all beasts, and, in such matters, had all the skill of all who are in heaven and on earth. For it is said, there came a voice from heaven, saying, “Man, know thyself.” Thus that proverb is still true, “Going out were never so good, but staying at home were much better.”
Further, you should learn that eternal blessedness lies in one thing alone, and in nought else. And if ever man or the soul is to be made blessed, that one thing alone must be in the soul. Now some might ask, “But what is that one thing?” I answer, it is Goodness, or that which hath been made good; and yet neither this good nor that, which we can name, or perceive or show; but it is all and above all good things.
Moreover, it needed not to enter into the soul, for it is there already, only it is unperceived. When we say we should come unto it, we mean that we should seek it, feel it, and taste it. And now since it is One, unity and singleness is better than manifoldness. For blessedness lies not in much and many, but in One and oneness. In one word, blessedness lies not in any creature, or work of the creatures, but it lies alone in God and in His works. Therefore I must wait only on God and His work, and leave on one side all creatures with their works, and first of all myself. In like manner all the great works and wonders that God has ever wrought or shall ever work in or through the creatures, or even God Himself with all His goodness, so far as these things exist or are done outside of me, can never make me blessed, but only in so far as they exist and are done and loved, known, tasted and felt within me.

                                 CHAPTER X

     How the perfect men have no other desire than that they may be to the Eternal Goodness what His Hand is to a man, and how they have lost the fear of Hell, and Hope of Heaven.

Now let us mark: Where men are enlightened with the true light, they perceive that all which they might desire or choose, is nothing to that which all creatures, as creatures, ever desired or chose or knew, Therefore they renounce all desire and choice, and commit and commend themselves and all things to the Eternal Goodness. Nevertheless, there remaineth in them a desire to go forward and get nearer to the Eternal Goodness; that is, to come to a clearer knowledge, and warmer love, and more comfortable assurance, and perfect obedience and subjection; so that every enlightened man could say: “I would fain be to the Eternal Goodness, what His own hand is to a man.” And he feared always that he is not enough so, and longs for the salvation of all men. And such men do not call this longing their own, nor take it unto themselves, for they know well that this desire is not of man, but of the Eternal Goodness; for whatsoever is good shall no one take unto himself as his own, seeing that it belonged to the Eternal Goodness, only.
Moreover, these men are in a state of freedom, because they have lost the fear of pain or hell, and the hope of reward or heaven, but are living in pure submission to the Eternal Goodness, in the perfect freedom of fervent love. This mind was in Christ in perfection, and is also in His followers, in some more, and in some less. But it is a sorrow and shame to think that the Eternal Goodness is ever most graciously guiding and drawing us, and we will not yield to it. What is better and nobler than true poorness in spirit? Yet when that is held up before us, we will have none of it, but are always seeking ourselves, and our own things. We like to have our mouths always filled with good things, that we may have in ourselves a lively taste of pleasure and sweetness. When this is so, we are well pleased, and think it stands not amiss with us. But we are yet a long way off from a perfect life. For when God will draw us up to something higher, that is, to an utter loss and forsaking of our own things, spiritual and natural, and withdraws His comfort and sweetness from us, we faint and are troubled, and can in no wise bring our minds to it; and we forget God and neglect holy exercises, and fancy we are lost for ever. This is a great error and a bad sign. For a true lover of God, loves Him or the Eternal Goodness alike, in having and in not having, in sweetness and bitterness, in good or evil report, and the like, for he seeks alone the honor of God, and not his own, either in spiritual or natural things. And therefore he stands alike unshaken in all things, at all seasons. Hereby let every man prove himself, how he stands towards God, his Creator and Lord.

                                 CHAPTER XI

     How a righteous Man in this present Time is brought into hell, and there cannot be comforted, and how he is taken out of Hell and carried into Heaven, and there cannot be troubled.

     Christ’s soul must needs descend into hell, before it ascended into heaven. So must also the soul of man. But mark ye in what manner this cometh to pass. When a man truly perceives and considers himself, who and what he is, and fended himself utterly vile and wicked, and unworthy of all the comfort and kindness that he hath ever received from God, or from the creatures, he fell into such a deep abasement and despising of himself, that he thinks himself unworthy that the earth should bear him, and it seemed to him reasonable that all creatures in heaven and earth should rise up against him and avenge their Creator on him, and should punish and torment him; and that he were unworthy even of that. And it seemed to him that he shall be eternally lost and damned, and a footstool to all the devils in hell, and that this is right and just and all too little compared to his sins which he so often and in so many ways hath committed against God his Creator. And therefore also he will not and dare not desire any consolation or release, either from God or from any creature that is in heaven or on earth; but he is willing to be unconsoled and unreleased, and he doth not grieve over his condemnation and sufferings; for they are right and just, and not contrary to God, but according to the will of God.
Therefore they are right in his eyes, and he hath nothing to say against them. Nothing grieveth him but his own guilt and wickedness; for that is not right and is contrary to God, and for that cause he is grieved and troubled in spirit.
This is what is meant by true repentance for sin. And he who in this Present time entered into this hell, entered afterward into the Kingdom of Heaven, and obtained a foretaste there of which excelled all the delight and joy which he ever hath had or could have in this present time from temporal things. But whilst a man is thus in hell, none may console him, neither God nor the creature, as it is written, “In hell there is no redemption.”[11] Of this state hath one said, “Let me perish, let me die! I live without hope; from within and from without I am condemned, let no one pray that I may be released.”
Now God hath not forsaken a man in this hell, but He is laying His hand upon him, that the man may not desire nor regard anything but the Eternal Good only, and may come to know that that is so noble and passing good, that none can search out or express its bliss, consolation and joy, peace, rest and satisfaction. And then, when the man neither cares for, nor seeks, nor desires, anything but the Eternal Good alone, and seeks not himself, nor his own things, but the honor of God only, he is made a partaker of all manner of joy, bliss, peace, rest and consolation, and so the man is henceforth in the Kingdom of Heaven.
This hell and this heaven are two good, safe ways for a man in this present time, and happy is he who truly fended them.

           For this hell shall pass away, but Heaven shall endure for aye.

Also let a man mark, when he is in this hell, nothing may console him; and he cannot believe that he shall ever be released or comforted. But when he is in heaven, nothing can trouble him; he believeth also that none will ever be able to offend or trouble him, albeit it is indeed true, that after this hell he may be comforted and released, and after this heaven he may be troubled and left without consolation.
Again: this hell and this heaven come about a man in such sort, that he knows not whence they come; and whether they come to him, or depart from him, he can of himself do nothing towards it. Of these things he can neither give nor take away from himself, bring them nor banish them, but as it is written, “The wind blows where it will, and thou hears the sound thereof,” that is to say, at this time present, “but thou knows not whence it cometh, nor whither it goes.”[12] And when a man is in one of these two states, all is right with him, and he is as safe in hell as in heaven, and so long as a man is on earth, it is possible for him to pass ofttimes from the one into the other; nay even within the space of a day and night, and all without his own doing. But when the man is in neither of these two states he holds converse with the creature, and wavered hither and thither, and knows not what manner of man he is. Therefore he shall never forget either of them, but lay up the remembrance of them in his heart.

                                CHAPTER XII

     Touching that true inward Peace, which Christ left to His Disciples at the last.

Many say they have no peace nor rest, but so many crosses and trials, afflictions and sorrows, that they know not how they shall ever get through them. Now he who in truth will perceive and take note, perceives clearly, that true peace and rest lie not in outward things; for if it were so, the Evil Spirit also would have peace when things go according to his will which is nowise the case; for the prophet declared, “There is no peace, says my God, to the wicked.”[13] And therefore we must consider and see what is that peace which Christ left to His disciples at the last, when He said: “My peace I leave with you, My peace I give unto you.”[14] We may perceive that in these words Christ did not mean a bodily and outward peace; for His beloved disciples, with all His friends and followers, have ever suffered, from the beginning, great affliction, persecution, nay, often martyrdom, as Christ Himself said: “In this world ye shall have tribulation.”[15] But Christ meant that true, inward peace of the heart, which begins here, and endures for ever hereafter. Therefore He said: “Not as the world gives,”for the world is false, and deceives in her gifts. She promises much, and performs little. Moreover there lives no man on earth who may always have rest and peace without troubles and crosses, with whom things always go according to his will; there is always something to be suffered here, turn which way you will. And as soon as you are quit of one assault, perhaps two come in its place. Wherefore yield thyself willingly to them, and seek only that true peace of the heart, which none can take away from thee, that thou may overcome all assaults.
Thus then, Christ meant that inward peace which can break through all assaults and crosses of oppression, suffering, misery, humiliation and what more there may be of the like, so that a man may be joyful and patient therein, like the beloved disciples and followers of Christ. Now he who will in love give his whole diligence and might thereto, will verily come to know that true eternal peace which is God Himself, as far as it is possible to a creature; insomuch that what was bitter to him before, shall become sweet, and his heart shall remain unmoved under all changes, at all times, and after this life, he shall attain unto everlasting peace.

                                CHAPTER XIII

     How a Man may cast aside Images too soon.

Tauler says: “There be some men at the present time, who take leave of types and symbols too soon, before they have drawn out all the truth and instruction contained therein.” Hence they are scarcely or perhaps never able to understand the truth aright.[16] For such men will follow no one, and lean unto their own understandings, and desire to fly before they are fledged. They would fain mount up to heaven in one flight; albeit Christ did not so, for after His resurrection, He remained full forty days with His beloved disciples. No one can be made perfect in a day. A man must begin by denying himself, and willingly forsaking all things for God’s sake, and must give up his own will, and all his natural inclinations, and separate and cleanse himself thoroughly from all sins and evil ways. After this, let him  humbly take up the cross and follow Christ. Also let him take and receive example and instruction, reproof, counsel and teaching from devout and perfect servants of God, and not follow his own guidance. Thus the work shall be established and come to a good end. And when a man hath thus broken loose from and out leaped all temporal things and creatures, he may afterwards become perfect in a life of contemplation. For he who will have the one must let the other go. There is no other way.

                                CHAPTER XIV

     Of three Stages by which a Man is led upwards till he attaints true Perfection.

Now be assured that no one can be enlightened unless he be first cleansed or purified and stripped. So also, no one can be united with God unless he be first enlightened. Thus there are three stages: first, the purification; secondly, the enlightening; thirdly, the union. The purification concerns those who are beginning or repenting, and is brought to pass in a threefold wise; by contrition and sorrow for sin, by full confession, by hearty amendment. The enlightening belongs to such as are growing, and also takes place in three ways: to wit, by the eschewal of sin, by the practice of virtue and good works, and by the willing endurance of all manner of temptation and trials. The union belongs to such as are perfect, and also is brought to pass in three ways: to wit, by pureness and singleness of heart, by love, and by the contemplation of God, the Creator of all things.

                                 CHAPTER XV

     How all Men are dead in Adam and are made alive again in Christ, and of true Obedience and Disobedience.

All that in Adam fell and died, was raised again and made alive in Christ, and all that rose up and was made alive in Adam, fell and died in Christ. But what was that? I answer, true obedience and disobedience. But what is true obedience? I answer, that a man should so stand free, being quit of himself, that is, of his I, and Me, and Self, and Mine, and the like, that in all things, he should no more seek or regard himself, than if he did not exist, and should take as little account of himself as if he were not, and another had done all his works. Likewise he should count all the creatures for nothing. What is there then, which is, and which we may count for somewhat? I answer, nothing but that which we may call God. Behold! this is very obedience in the truth, and thus it will be in a blessed eternity. There nothing is sought nor thought of, nor loved, but the one thing only.

     Hereby we may mark what disobedience is: to wit, that a man makes some account of himself, and thinks that he is, and knows, and can do somewhat, and seeks himself and his own ends in the things around him, and hath regard to and loves himself, and the like. Man is created for true obedience, and is bound of right to render it to God. And this obedience fell and died in Adam, and rose again and lived in Christ. Yea, Christ’s human nature was so utterly bereft of Self, and apart from all creatures, as no man’s ever was, and was nothing else but “a house and habitation of God.” Neither of that in Him which belonged to God, nor of that which was a living human nature and a habitation of God, did He, as man, claim anything for His own. His human nature did not even take unto itself the Godhead, whose dwelling it was, nor anything that this same Godhead willed, or did or left undone in Him, nor yet anything of all that His human nature did or suffered; but in Christ’s human nature there was no claiming of anything, nor seeking nor desire, saving that what was due might be rendered to the Godhead, and He did not call this very desire His own. Of this matter no more can be said, or written here, for it is unspeakable, and was never yet and never will be fully uttered; for it can neither be spoken nor written but by Him who is and knows its ground; that is, God Himself, who call do all things well.

                                CHAPTER XVI

     Tell us what is the old Man, and what is the new Man.

Again, when we read of the old man and the new man we must mark what that meant. The old man is Adam and disobedience, the Self, the Me, and so forth. But the new man is Christ and true obedience, a giving up and denying oneself of all temporal things, and seeking the honor of God alone in all things. And when dying and perishing and the like are spoken of, it meant that the old man should be destroyed, and not seek its own either in spiritual or in natural things. For where this is brought about in a true divine light, there the new man is born again. In like manner, it hath been said that man should die unto himself, that is, to earthly pleasures, consolations, joys, appetites, the I, the Self, and all that is thereof in man, to which he clings and on which he is yet leaning with content, and thinks much of. Whether it be the man himself, or any other creature, whatever it be, it must depart and die, if the man is to be brought aright to another mind, according to the truth.
Thereunto doth St. Paul exhort us, saying: “Put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts: . . . and that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.”[17] Now he who lives to himself after the old man, is called and is truly a child of Adam; and though he may give diligence to the ordering of his life, he is still the child and brother of the Evil Spirit. But he who lives in humble obedience and in the new man which is Christ, he is, in like manner, the brother of Christ and the child of God.
Behold! where the old man dies and the new man is born, there is that second birth of which Christ says, “Except a man be born again, he cannotenter into the kingdom of God.”[18] Likewise St. Paul says, “As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.”[19] That is to say, all who follow Adam in pride, in lust of the flesh, and in disobedience, are dead in soul, and never will or can be made alive but in Christ. And for this cause,
so long as a man is an Adam or his child, he is without God. Christ says, “He who is not with Me is against Me.”[20] Now he who is against God, is dead before God. Whence it followed that all Adam’s children are dead before God. But he who stands with Christ in perfect obedience, he is with God and lives. As it hath been said already, sin lies in the turning away of the creature from the Creator, which agrees with what we have now said.
For he who is in disobedience is in sin, and sin can never be atoned for or healed but by returning to God, and this is brought to Pass by humble obedience. For so long as a man continues in disobedience, his sin can never be blotted out; let him do what he will, it avails him nothing. Let us be assured of this. For disobedience is itself sin. But when a man entered into the obedience of the faith, all is healed, and blotted out and forgiven, and not else. Insomuch that if the Evil Spirit himself could come into true obedience, he would become an angel again, and all his sin and wickedness would be healed and blotted out and forgiven at once. And could an angel fall into disobedience, he would straightway become an evil spirit although he did nothing afresh.
If then it were possible for a man to renounce himself and all things, and to live as wholly and purely in true obedience, as Christ did in His human nature, such a man were quite without sin, and were one thing with Christ, and the same by grace which Christ was by nature. But it is said this cannot be. So also it is said: “There is none without sin.” But be that as it may, this much is certain; that the nearer we are to perfect obedience, the less we sin, and the farther from it we are, the more we sin. In brief: whether a man be good, better, or best of all; bad, worse, or worst of all; sinful or saved before God; it all lies in this matter of obedience. Therefore it hath been said: the more of Self and Me, the more of sin and wickedness. So likewise it hath been said: the more the Self, the I, the Me, the Mine, that is, self-seeking and selfishness, abate in a man, the more doth God’s I, that is, God Himself, increase in him.
Now, if all mankind abode in true obedience, there would be no grief nor sorrow. For if it were so, all men would be at one, and none would vex or harm another; so also, none would lead a life or do any deed contrary to God’s will. Whence then should grief or sorrow arise? But now alas! all men, nay the whole world lies in disobedience! Now were a man simply and wholly obedient as Christ was, all disobedience were to him a sharp and bitter pain. But though all men were against him, they could neither shake nor trouble him, for while in this obedience a man were one with God, and God Himself were one with the man.
Behold now all disobedience is contrary to God, and nothing else. In truth, no Thing is contrary to God; no creature nor creature’s work, nor anything that we can name or think of is contrary to God or displeasing to Him, but only disobedience and the disobedient man. In short, all that is, is well-pleasing and good in God’s eyes, saving only the disobedient man. But he is so displeasing and hateful to God and grieves Him so sore, that if it were possible for human nature to die a hundred deaths, God would willingly suffer them all for one disobedient man, that He might slay disobedience in him, and that obedience might be born again.
Behold! albeit no man may be so single and perfect in this obedience as Christ was, yet it is possible to every man to approach so near thereunto as to be rightly called Godlike, and “a partaker of the divine nature.”[21] And the nearer a man cometh thereunto, and the more Godlike and divine he becomes, the more he hated all disobedience, sin, evil and unrighteousness, and the worse they grieve him. Disobedience and sin are the same thing, for there is no sin but disobedience, and what is done of disobedience is all sin. Therefore all we have to do is to keep ourselves from disobedience.

                                CHAPTER XVII

     How we are not to take unto ourselves what we have done well: but only what we have done amiss.

      Behold! now it is reported there be some who vainly think and say that they are so wholly dead to self and quit of it, as to have reached and abide in a state where they suffer nothing and are moved by nothing, just as if all men were living in obedience, or as if there were no creatures. And thus they pofess to continue always in an even temper of mind, so that nothing cometh amiss to them, howsoever things fall out, well or ill. Nay verily! the matter stands not so, but as we have said. It might be thus, if all men were brought into obedience; but until then, it cannot be.
But it may be asked: Are not we to be separate from all things, and neither to take unto ourselves evil nor good? I answer, no one shall take goodness unto himself, for that belongs to God and His goodness only; but thanks be unto the man, and everlasting reward and blessings, who is fit and ready to be a dwelling and tabernacle of the Eternal Goodness and Godhead, wherein God may exert His power, and will and work without hindrance. But if any now will excuse himself for sin, by refusing to take what is evil unto himself, and laying the guilt thereof upon the Evil Spirit, and thus make himself out to be quite pure and innocent (as our first Parents Adam and Eve did while they were yet in paradise; when each laid the guilt upon the other), he hath no right at all to do this; for it is written, “There is none without sin.” Therefore I say; reproach, shame, loss, woe, and eternal damnation be to the man who is fit and ready and willing that the Evil Spirit and falsehood, lies and all untruthfulness, wickedness and other evil
things should have their will and pleasure, word and work in him, and make him their house and habitation.

                               CHAPTER XVIII

     How that the Life of Christ is the noblest and best Life that ever hath been or can be, and how a careless Life of false Freedom is the worst Life that can be.

       Of a truth we ought to know and believe that there is no life so noble and good and well pleasing to God, as the life of Christ, and yet it is to nature and selfishness the bitterest life. A life of carelessness and freedom is to nature and the Self and the Me, the sweetest and pleasantest life, but it is not the best; and in some men may become the worst. But though Christ’s life be the most bitter of all, yet it is to be preferred above all. Hereby shall ye mark this: There is an inward sight which hath power to perceive the One true Good, and that it is neither this nor that, but that of which St. Paul says; “When that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part shall be done away.”[22] By this he meant, that the
Whole and Perfect excels all the fragments, and that all which is in part and imperfect, is as nought compared to the Perfect. Thus likewise all knowledge of the parts is swallowed up when the Whole is known; and where that Good is known, it cannot but be longed for and loved so greatly, that all other love wherewith the man hath loved himself and other things, fades away. And that inward sight likewise perceives what is best and noblest in all things, and loves it in the one true Good, and only for the sake of that true Good.
Behold! where there is this inward sight, the man perceives of a truth, that Christ’s life is the best and noblest life, and therefore the most to be preferred, and he willingly accepts and endures it, without a question or a complaint, whether it please or offend nature or other men, whether he like or dislike it, find it sweet or bitter and the like. And therefore wherever this Perfect and true Good is known, there also the life of Christ must be led, until the death of the body. And he who vainly thinks otherwise is deceived, and he who says otherwise, lies, and in what man the life of Christ is not, of him the true Good and eternal Truth will nevermore be known.

                                CHAPTER XIX

     How we cannot come to the true Light and Christ’s Life, by much Questioning or Reading, or by high natural Skill and Reason, but by truly renouncing ourselves and all Things.

        Let no one suppose, that we may attain to this true light and perfect knowledge, or life of Christ, by much questioning, or by hearsay, or by reading and study, nor yet by high skill and great learning. Yea, so long as a man takes account of anything which is this or that, whether it be himself, or any other creature; or doeth anything, or frames a purpose, for the sake of his own likings or desires, or opinions, or ends, he cometh not unto the life of Christ. This hath Christ Himself declared, for He says: “If any man will come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me.”[23] “He that takes not his cross, and follows after Me, is not worthy of Me.”[24] And if he “hate not his father and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be My disciple.”[25] He meant it thus: “He who doth not forsake and part with everything, can never know My eternal truth, nor attain unto My life.” And though this had never been declared unto us, yet the truth herself says it, for it is so of a truth. But so long as a man clings unto the elements and fragments of this world (and above all to himself), and holds converse with them, and makes great account of them, he is deceived and blinded, and perceives what is good no further than as it is most convenient and pleasant to himself and profitable to his own ends.
These he holds to be the highest good and loves above all. Thus he never cometh to the truth.

                                 CHAPTER XX

     How, seeing that the Life of Christ is most bitter to Nature and Self, Nature will have none of it, and chooses a false careless Life, as is most convenient to her.

     Now, since the life of Christ is every way most bitter to nature and the Self and the Me (for in the true life of Christ, the Self and the Me and nature must be forsaken and lost, and die altogether), therefore, in each of us, nature hath a horror of it, and thinks it evil and unjust and a folly, and grasped after such a life as shall be most comfortable and pleasant to herself, and says, and believeth also in her blindness, that such a life is the best possible. Now, nothing is so comfortable and pleasant to nature, as a free, careless way of life, therefore she clings to that, and takes enjoyment in herself and her own powers, and looked only to her own peace and comfort and the like. And this happens most of all, where there are high natural gifts of reason, for that soared upwards in its own light and by its own power, till at last it cometh to think itself the true Eternal Light, and gives itself out as such, and is thus deceived in itself, and deceives other people along with it, who know no better, and also are thereunto inclined.

                                CHAPTER XXI

     How a friend of Christ willingly fulfilled by his outward Works, such Things as must be and ought to be, and doth not concern himself with the rest.

     Now, it may be asked, what is the state of a man who follows the true Light to the utmost of his power? I answer truly, it will never be declared aright, for he who is not such a man, can neither understand nor know it, and he who is, knows it indeed; but he cannot utter it, for it is unspeakable. Therefore let him who would know it, give his whole diligence that he may enter therein; then will he see and find what hath never been uttered by man’s lips. However, I believe that such a man hath liberty as to his outward walk and conversation, so long as they consist with what must be or ought to be; but they may not consist with what he merely wills to be. But oftentimes a man makes to himself many must-be’s and ought-to-be’s which are false. The which ye may see hereby, that when a man is moved by his pride or covetousness or other evil dispositions, to do or leave undone anything, he ofttimes says, “It must needs be so, and ought to be so.” Or if he is driven to, or held back from anything by the desire to find favor in men’s eyes, or by love, friendship, enmity, or the lusts and appetites of his body, he says, “It must needs be so, and ought to be so.” Yet behold, that is utterly false. Had we no must-be’s, nor ought-to-be’s, but such as God and the Truth show us, and constrain us to, we should have less, forsooth, to order and do than now; for we make to ourselves much disquietude and difficulty which we might well be spared and raised above.

                                CHAPTER XXII

     How sometimes the Spirit of God, and sometimes also the Evil Spirit may possess a Man and have the mastery over him.

     It is written that sometimes the Devil and his spirit do so enter into and possess a man, that he knows not what he doeth and leaves undone, and hath no power over himself, but the Evil Spirit hath the mastery over him, and doeth and leaves undone in, and with, and through, and by the man what he will. It is true in a sense that all the world is subject to and possessed with the Evil Spirit, that is, with lies, falsehood, and other vices and evil ways; this also cometh of the Evil Spirit, but in a different
sense,

     Now, a man who should be in like manner possessed by the Spirit of God, so that he should not know what he doeth or leaves undone, and have no power over himself, but the will and Spirit of God should have the mastery over him, and work, and do, and leave undone with him and by him, what and as God would; such a man were one of those of whom St. Paul says: “For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God,”[26] and they “are not under the law, but under grace,”[27] and to whom Christ says: “For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaks in you.”[28]
But I fear that for one who is truly possessed with the Spirit of God, there are a hundred thousand or an innumerable multitude possessed with the Evil Spirit. This is because men have more likeness to the Evil Spirit than to God. For the Self, the I, the Me and the like, all belong to the Evil Spirit, and therefore it is, that he is an Evil Spirit. Behold one or two words can utter all that hath been said by these many words: “Be simply and wholly bereft of Self.” But by these many words, the matter hath been more fully sifted, proved, and set forth.
Now men say, “I am in no wise prepared for this work, and therefore it cannot be wrought in me,” and thus they find an excuse, so that they neither are ready nor in the way to be so. And truly there is no one to blame for this but themselves. For if a man were looking and striving after nothing but to find a preparation in all things, and diligently gave his whole mind to see how he might become prepared; verily God would well prepare him, for God gives as much care and earnestness and love to the preparing of a man, as to the pouring in of His Spirit when the man is prepared.
Yet there be certain means thereunto, as the saying is, “To learn an art which thou knows not, four things are needful.”[29] The first and most needful of all is, a great desire and diligence and constant endeavor to learn the art. And where this is wanting, the art will never be learned. The second is, a copy or ensample by which thou might learn. The third is to give earnest heed to the master, and watch how he works, and to be obedient to him in all things, and to trust him and follow him. The fourth is to put thy own hand to the work, and practice it with all industry. But where one of these four is wanting, the art will never be learned and mastered. So likewise is it with this preparation. For he who hath the first, that is, thorough diligence and constant, persevering desire towards his end, will also seek and find all that appertained thereunto, or is serviceable and profitable to it. But he who hath not that earnestness and diligence, love and desire, seeks not, and therefore fended not, and
therefore remaineth ever unprepared. And therefore he never attaints unto that end.

                               CHAPTER XXIII

     He who will submit himself to God and be obedient to Him, must be ready to bear with all Things; to wit, God, himself, and all Creatures, and must be obedient to them all whether he have to suffer or to do.

    There be some who talk of other ways and preparations to this end, and say we must lie still under God’s hand, and be obedient and resigned and submit to Him. This is true; for all this would be perfected in a man who should
attain to the uttermost that can be reached in this present time. But if a man ought and is willing to lie still under God’s hand, he must and ought also to be still under all things, whether they come from God himself, or the creatures, nothing excepted. And he who would be obedient, resigned and submissive to God, must and ought to be also resigned, obedient and submissive to all things, in a spirit of yielding, and not of resistance,
and take them in silence, resting on the hidden foundations of his soul, and having a secret inward patience, that enables him to take all chances or crosses willingly, and whatever befalls, neither to call for nor desire any redress, or deliverance, or resistance, or revenge, but always in a loving, sincere humility to cry, “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do!”
Behold! this were a good path to that which is Best, and a noble and blessed preparation for the farthest goal which a man may reach in this present time. This is the lovely life of Christ, for He walked in the aforesaid paths perfectly and wholly unto the end of His bodily life on earth. Therefore there is no other and better way or preparation to the joyful life of Jesus Christ, than this same course, and to exercise oneself therein, as much as may be. And of what belongs thereunto we have already said somewhat; nay, all that we have here or elsewhere said and written, is but a way or means to that end. But what the end is, knows no man to declare. But let him who would know it, follow my counsel and take the right path thereunto, which is the humble life of Jesus Christ; let him strive after that with unwearied perseverance, and so, without doubt, he shall come to that end which endures for ever. “For he that endures to the end shall be saved.”[30]

                                CHAPTER XXIV

     How that four Things are needful before a Man can receive divine Truth and be possessed with the Spirit of God.[31]

      Moreover there are yet other ways to the lovely life of Christ, besides those we have spoken of: to wit, that God and man should be wholly united, so that it can be said of a truth, that God and man are one. This cometh to Pass on this wise. Where the Truth always reigns, so that true perfect God and true perfect man are at one, and man so gives place to God, that God Himself is there and yet the man too, and this same unity works continually, and doeth and leaves undone without any I, and Me, and Mine, and the like; behold, there is Christ, and nowhere else. Now, seeing that here there is true perfect manhood, so there is a perfect perceiving and feeling of pleasure and pain, liking and disliking, sweetness and bitterness, joy and sorrow, and all that can be perceived and felt within and without. And seeing that God is here made man, He is also able to perceive and feel love and hatred, evil and good and the like. As a man who is not God, feels and takes note of all that gives him pleasure and pain, and it pierces him to the heart, especially what offends him; so is it also when God and man are one, and yet God is the man; there everything is perceived and felt that is contrary to God and man. And since there man becomes nought, and God alone is everything, so is it with that which is contrary to man, and a sorrow to him. And this must hold true of God so long as a bodily and substantial life endures.
Furthermore, mark ye, that the one Being in whom God and man are united, stands free of himself and of all things, and whatever is in him is there for God’s sake and not for man’s, or the creature’s. For it is the property of God to be without this and that, and without Self and Me, and without equal or fellow; but it is the nature and property of the creature to seek itself and its own things, and this and that, here and there; and in all that it does and leaves undone its desire is to its own advantage and profit. Now where a creature or a man forsakes and comes out of himself and his own things, there God enters in with His own, that is, with Himself.

                                CHAPTER XXV

     Of two evil Fruits that do spring up from the Seed of the Evil Spirit, and are two Sisters who love to dwell together. The one is called spiritual pride and high-mindedness, the other is false, lawless Freedom.

    Now, after that a man hath walked in all the ways that lead him unto the truth, and exercised himself therein, not sparing his labor; now, as often and as long as he dreams that his work is altogether finished, and he is by this time quite dead to the world, and come out from Self and given up to God alone, behold! the Devil comes and sows his seed in the man’s heart. From this seed spring two fruits; the one is spiritual fullness or pride, the other is false, lawless freedom. These are two sisters who love to be together. Now, it begins on this wise: the Devil puffs up the man, till he thinks himself to have climbed the topmost pinnacle, and to have come so near to heaven, that he no longer needed Scripture, nor teaching, nor
this nor that, but is altogether raised above any need. Whereupon there arises a false peace and satisfaction with himself, and then it follows that he says or thinks: “Yea, now I am above all other men, and know and understand more than any one in the world; therefore it is certainly just and reasonable that I should be the lord and commander of all creatures, and that all creatures, and especially all men, should serve me and be subject unto me.” And then he seeks and desires the same, and takes it gladly from all creatures, especially men, and thinks himself well worthy of all this, and that it is his due, and looked on men as if they were the beasts of the field, and thinks himself worthy of all that ministered to his body and life and nature, in profit, or joy, or pleasure, or even pastime and amusement, and he seeks and takes it wherever he fended opportunity. And whatever is done or can be done for him, seemed him all too little and too poor, for he thinks himself worthy of still more and greater honor than can be rendered to him. And of all the men who serve him and are subject to him, even if they be downright thieves and murderers, he says nevertheless, that they have faithful, noble hearts, and have great love and faithfulness to the truth and to poor men. And such men are praised by him, and he seeks them and follows after them wherever they be. But he who doth not order himself according to the will of these high-minded men, nor is subject unto them, is not sought after by them, nay, more likely blamed and spoken ill of, even though he were as holy as St. Peter himself. And seeing that this proud and puffed-up spirit thinks that she needs neither Scripture, nor instruction, nor anything of the kind, therefore she gives no heed to the admonitions, order, laws and precepts of the holy Christian Church, nor to the Sacraments, but mocks at them and at all men who walk according to these ordinances and hold them in reverence. Hereby we may plainly see that those two sisters dwell together.
Moreover since this sheer pride thinks to know and understand more than all men besides, therefore she chooses to prate more than all other men, and would fain have her opinions and speeches to be alone regarded and listened to, and counts all that others think and say to be wrong, and holds it in derision as a folly.

                                CHAPTER XXVI

     Touching Poorness of Spirit and true Humility and whereby we may discern the true and lawful free Men whom the Truth hath made free.

      But it is quite otherwise where there is poorness of spirit, and true humility; and it is so because it is found and known of a truth that a man, of himself and his own power, is nothing, hath nothing, can do and is capable of nothing but only infirmity and evil. Hence follows that the man fended himself altogether unworthy of all that hath been or ever will be done for him, by God or the creatures, and that he is a debtor to God and also to all the creatures in God’s stead, both to bear with, and to labor for, and to serve them. And therefore he doth not in any wise stand up for his own rights, but from the humility of his heart he says, “It is just and reasonable that God and all creatures should be against me, and have a right over me, and to me, and that I should not be against any one, nor have a right to anything.” Hence it follows that the man doth not and will not crave or beg for anything, either from God or the creatures, beyond mere needful things, and for those only with shamefacedness, as a favor and not as a right. And he will not minister unto or gratify his body or any of his natural desires, beyond what is needful, nor allow that any should help or serve him except in case of necessity, and then always in trembling; for he hath no right to anything and therefore he thinks himself unworthy of anything. So likewise all his own discourse, ways, words and works seem to this man a thing of nought and a folly. Therefore he speaks little, and doth not take upon himself to admonish or rebuke any, unless he be constrained thereto by love or faithfulness towards God, and even then he doth it in fear, and so little as may be.
Moreover, when a man hath this poor and humble spirit, he cometh to see and understand aright, how that all men are bent upon themselves, and inclined to evil and sin, and that on this account it is needful and profitable that there be order, customs, law and precepts, to the end that the blindness and foolishness of men may be corrected, and that vice and wickedness may be kept under, and constrained to seemliness. For without
ordinances, men would be much more mischievous and ungovernable than dogs and cattle. And few have come to the knowledge of the truth but what have begun with holy practices and ordinances, and exercised themselves therein so long as they knew nothing more nor better.
Therefore one who is poor in spirit and of a humble mind doth not despise or make light of law, order, precepts and holy customs, nor yet of those who observe and cleave wholly to them, but with loving pity and gentle sorrow, cries: “Almighty Father, Thou Eternal Truth, I make my lament unto Thee, and it grieves Thy Spirit too, that through man’s blindness, infirmity, and sin, that is made needful and must be, which in deed and truth were neither needful nor right.” For those who are perfect are under no law.
So order, laws, precepts and the like are merely an admonition to men who understand nothing better and know and perceive not wherefore all law and order is ordained. And the perfect accept the law along with such ignorant men as understand and know nothing better, and practice it with them, to the intent that they may be restrained thereby, and kept from evil ways, or if it be possible, brought to something higher.
Behold! all that we have said of poverty and humility is so of a truth, and we have the proof and witness thereof in the pure life of Christ, and in His words. For He both practiced and fulfilled every work of true humility and all other virtues, as shined forth in His holy life, and He says also expressly: “Learn of Me; for I am meek and lowly of heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.”[32] Moreover He did not despise and set at nought the
law and the commandments, nor yet the men who are under the law. He says: “I am not come to destroy the law or the prophets, but to fulfill.” But he says further, that to keep them is not enough, we must press forward to what is higher and better, as is indeed true. He says: “Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of Heaven.”[33] For the law forbids evil works, but Christ condemns also evil thoughts; the law allows us to take vengeance on our enemies, but Christ commands us to love them. The law forbids not the good things of this world, but He counsels us to despise them. And He hath set His seal upon all He said, with His own holy life; for He taught nothing that He did not fulfill in work, and He kept the law and was subject unto it to the end of His mortal life. Likewise St. Paul says: “Christ was made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law.”[34] That is, that He might bring them to something higher and nearer to Himself. He said again, “The Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister.”[35]
In a word: in Christ’s life and words and works, we find nothing but true, pure humility and poverty such as we have set forth. And therefore where God dwells in a man, and the man is a true follower of Christ, it will be, and must be, and ought to be the same. But where there is pride, and a haughty spirit, and a light careless mind, Christ is not, nor any true follower of His.
Christ said: “My soul is troubled, even unto death.” He meant His bodily death. That is to say: from the time that He was born of Mary, until His death on the cross, He had not one joyful day, but only trouble, sorrow and contradiction. Therefore it is just and reasonable that His servants should be even as their Master. Christ says also: “Blessed are the poor in spirit” (that is, those who are truly humble), “for theirs is the kingdom of
Heaven.” And thus we find it of a truth, where God is made man. For in Christ and in all His true followers, there must needs be thorough humility and poorness of spirit, a lowly retiring disposition, and a heart laden with a secret sorrow and mourning, so long as this mortal life lasts. And he who dreams otherwise is deceived, and deceives others with him as aforesaid. Therefore nature and Self always avoid this life, and cling to a life of false freedom and ease, as we have said.
Behold! now cometh an Adam or an Evil Spirit, wishing to justify himself and make excuse, and says: “Thou wilt almost have it that Christ was bereft of self and the like, yet He spoke often of Himself, and glorified Himself in this and that.” Answer: when a man in whom the truth works, hath and ought to have a will towards anything, his will and endeavor and works are for no end, but that the truth may be seen and manifested; and this will was in Christ, and to this end, words and works were needful. And what Christ did because it was the most profitable and best means thereunto, He no more took unto Himself than anything else that happened. Dost thou say now: “Then there was a Wherefore in Christ”? I answer, if thou wert to ask the sun, “Why shines thou?” he would say: “I must shine, and cannot do otherwise, for it is my nature and property; but this my property, and the light I give, is not of myself, and I do not call it mine.” So likewise is it with God and Christ and all who are godly and belong unto God. In them is no willing, nor working nor desiring but has for its end, goodness as goodness, for the sake of goodness, and they have no other Wherefore than this.

                               CHAPTER XXVII

     How we are to take Christ’s Words when He bade forsake all Things; and wherein the Union with the Divine Will stands.

     Now, according to what hath been said, ye must observe that when we say, as Christ also says, that we ought to resign and forsake all things, this is not to be taken in the sense that a man is neither to do nor to purpose anything; for a man must always have something to do and to order so long as he lives. But we are to understand by it that the union with God stands not in any man’s powers, in his working or abstaining, perceiving or knowing, nor in that of all the creatures taken together. Now what is this union? It is that we should be of a truth purely, simply, and wholly at one with the One Eternal Will of God, or altogether without will, so that the created will should flow out into the Eternal Will, and be swallowed up and lost therein, so that the Eternal Will alone should do and leave undone in us. Now mark what may help or further us towards this end. Behold, neither exercises, nor words, nor works, nor any creature nor creature’s work can do this. In this wise therefore must we renounce and forsake all things, that we must not imagine or suppose that any words, works, or exercises, any skill or cunning or any created thing can help or serve us thereto. Therefore we must suffer these things to be what they are, and enter into the union with God. Yet outward things must be, and we must do and refrain so far as is necessary, especially we must sleep and wake, walk and stand still, speak and be silent and much more of the like. These must go on so long as we live.

                               CHAPTER XXVIII

     How, after a Union with the Divine Will, the inward Man stands immoveable, the while the outward Man is moved hither and thither.

   Now, when this union truly cometh to pass and becomes established, the inward man stands henceforward immoveable in this union; and God suffers the outward man to be moved hither and thither, from this to that, of such things as are necessary and right. So that the outward man says in sincerity “I have no will to be or not to be, to live or die, to know or not to know, to do or to leave undone and the like; but I am ready for all that
is to be, or ought to be, and obedient thereunto, whether I have to do or to suffer.” And thus the outward man hath no Wherefore or purpose, but only to do his part to further the Eternal Will. For it is perceived of a truth, that the inward man shall stand immoveable, and that it is needful for the outward man to be moved. And if the inward man have any Wherefore in the actions of the outward man, he says only that such things must be and ought to be, as are ordained by the Eternal Will. And where God Himself dwells in the man, it is thus; as we plainly see in Christ. Moreover, where there is this union, which is the offspring of a Divine light and dwells in its beams, there is no spiritual pride or irreverent spirit, but boundless humility, and a lowly broken heart; also an honest blameless walk, justice, peace, content, and all that is of virtue must needs be there. Where they are not, there is no right union, as we have said. For just as neither this thing nor that can bring about or further this union, so there is nothing which hath power to frustrate or hinder it, save the man himself with his self-will, that doeth him this great wrong. Of this be well assured.

                                CHAPTER XXIX

     How a Man may not attain so high before Death as not to be moved or touched by outward Things.

      There be some who affirm, that a man, while in this present time, may and ought to be above being touched by outward things, and in all respects as Christ was after His resurrection. This they try to prove and establish by Christ’s words: “I go before you into Galilee there; shall ye see Me.”[36] And again, “A spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see Me have.”[37] These sayings they interpret thus: “As ye have seen Me, and been followers of Me, in My mortal body and life, so also it behooves you to see Me and follow Me, as I go before you into Galilee; that is to say, into a state in which nothing has power to move or grieve the soul; on which state ye shall enter, and live and continue therein, before that ye have suffered and gone through your bodily death. And as ye see Me having flesh and bones, and not liable to suffer, so shall ye likewise, while yet in the body and having
your mortal nature, cease to feel outward things, were it even the death of the body.”
Now, I answer, in the first place, to this affirmation, that Christ did not mean that a man should or could attain unto this state, unless he have first gone through and suffered all that Christ did. Now, Christ did not attain thereunto, before He had passed through and suffered His natural death, and what things appertain thereto. Therefore no man can or ought to come to it so long as he is mortal and liable to suffer. For if such a state were the noblest and best, and if it were possible and right to attain to it, as aforesaid, in this present time, then it would have been attained by Christ; for the life of Christ is the best and noblest, the worthiest and loveliest in God’s sight that ever was or will be. Therefore if it was not and could not be so with Christ, it will never be so with any man. Therefore though some may imagine and say that such a life is the best and noblest life, yet it is not so.

                                CHAPTER XXX

     On what wise we may came to be beyond and above all Custom, Order,Law, Precepts and the like.

    Some say further, that we can and ought to get beyond all virtue, all custom and order, all law, precepts and seemliness, so that all these should be laid aside, thrown off and set at nought. Herein there is some truth, and
some falsehood. Behold and mark: Christ was greater than His own life, and above all virtue, custom, ordinances and the like, and so also is the Evil Spirit above them, but with a difference. For Christ was and is above them on this wise, that His words, and works, and ways, His doings and refrainings, His speech and silence, His sufferings, and whatsoever happened to Him, were not forced upon Him, neither did He need them, neither were
they of any profit to Himself. It was and is the same with all manner of virtue, order, laws, decency, and the like; for all that may be reached by them is already in Christ to perfection. In this sense, that saying of St. Paul is true and received its fulfillment, “As many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God,” “and are not under the law, but under grace.”[38] That meant, man need not teach them what they are to do or abstain from; for their Master, that is, the Spirit of God, shall verily teach them what is needful for them to know. Likewise they do not need that men should give them precepts, or command them to do right and not to do wrong, and the like; for the same admirable Master who teaches them what is good or not good, what is higher and lower, and in short leads them into all truth, He reigns also within them, and bids them to hold fast that which is good, and to let the rest go, and to Him they give ear. Behold! in this sense they need not to wait upon any law, either to teach or to command them. In another sense also they need no law; namely, in order to seek or win something thereby or get any advantage for themselves. For whatever help toward eternal life, or furtherance in the way everlasting, they might obtain from the aid, or counsel, or words, or works of any creature, they possess already beforehand. Behold! in this sense also it is true, that we may rise above all law and virtue, and also above the works and knowledge and powers of any creature.

                                CHAPTER XXXI

     How we are not to cast off the Life of Christ, but practice it diligently, and walk in it until Death

     But that other thing which they affirm, how that we ought to throw off and cast aside the life of Christ, and all laws and commandments, customs and order and the like, and pay no heed to them, but despise and make light of them, is altogether false and a lie. Now some may say; “Since neither Christ nor others can ever gain anything, either by a Christian life, or by all these exercises and ordinances, and the like, nor turn them to any account,
seeing that they possess already all that can be had through them, what cause is there why they should not henceforth eschew them altogether? Must they still retain and practice them?”
Behold, ye must look narrowly into this matter. There are two kinds of Light; the one is true and the other is false. The true light is that Eternal Light which is God; or else it is a created light, but yet divine, which is called grace. And these are both the true Light. So is the false light Nature or of Nature. But why is the first true, and the second false? This we can better perceive than say or write. To God, as Godhead, appertain neither will, nor knowledge, nor manifestation, nor anything that we can name, or say, or conceive. But to God as God,[39] it belongs to express Himself, and know and love Himself, and to reveal Himself to Himself; and all this without any creature. And all this rests in God as a substance but not as a working, so long as there is no creature. And out of this expressing and revealing of Himself unto Himself, arises the distinction of Persons. But when God as God is made man, or where God dwells in a godly man, or one who is “made a partaker of the divine nature,” in such a man somewhat appertained unto God which is His own, and belongs to Him only and not to the creature. And without the creature, this would lie in His own Self as a Substance or well-spring, but would not be manifested or wrought out into deeds. Now God will have it to be exercised and clothed in a form, for it is there only to be wrought out and executed. What else is it for? Shall it lie idle? What then would it profit? As good were it that it had never been; nay better, for what is of no use exists in vain, and that is abhorred by God and Nature. However God will have it wrought out, and this cannot come to pass (which it ought to do) without the creature. Nay, if
there ought not to be, and were not this and that — works, and a world full of real things, and the like, — what were God Himself, and what had He to do, and whose God would He be? Here we must turn and stop, or we might follow this matter and grope along until we knew not where we were, nor how we should find our way out again.

                               CHAPTER XXXII

     How God is a true, simple, perfect Good, and how He is a Light and Reason and all Virtues, and how what is highest and best, that      is, God, ought to be most loved by us.

     In short, I would have you to understand, that God (in so far as He is good) is goodness as goodness, and not this or that good. But here mark one thing. Behold! what is sometimes here and sometimes there is not verywhere, and above all things and places; so also, what is to-day, or to-morrow, is not always, at all times, and above all time; and what is some thing, this or that, is not all things and above all things. Now behold, if God were some thing, this or that, He would not be all in all, and above all, as He is; and so also, He would not be true Perfection. Therefore God is, and yet He is neither this nor that which the creature, as creature, can perceive, name, conceive or express. Therefore if God (in so far as He is good) were this or that good, He would not be all good, and therefore He would not be the One Perfect Good, which He is. Now God is also a Light and a Reason,[40]
the property of which is to give light and shine, and take knowledge; and inasmuch as God is Light and Reason, He must give light and perceive. And all this giving and perceiving of light exists in God without the creature; not as a work fulfilled, but as a substance or well-spring. But for it to flow out into a work, something really done and accomplished,[41] there must be creatures through whom this can come to pass. Look ye: where this Reason and Light is at work in a creature, it perceives and knows and teaches what itself is; how that it is good in itself and neither this thing nor that thing. This Light and Reason knows and teaches men, that it is a true, simple, perfect Good, which is neither this nor that special good, but comprehended every kind of good.
Now, having declared that this Light teaches the One Good, what doth it teach concerning it? Give heed to this. Behold! even as God is the one Good and Light and  reason, so is He also Will and Love and Justice and Truth, and in short all virtues. But all these are in God one Substance, and none of them can be put in exercise and wrought out into deeds without the creature, for in God, without the creature, they are only as a Substance or
well-spring, not as a work. But where the One, who is yet all these, lay hold of a creature, and takes possession of it, and directs and makes use of it, so that He may perceive in it somewhat of His own, behold, in so far as He is Will and Love, He is taught of Himself, seeing that He is also Light and Reason, and He wills nothing but that One thing which He is.
Behold! in such a creature, there is no longer anything willed or loved but that which is good, because it is good, and for no other reason than that it is good, not because it is this or that, or pleases or displeases such a one, is pleasant or painful, bitter or sweet, or what not. All this is not asked about nor looked at. And such a creature doth nothing for its own sake, or in its own name, for it hath quitted all Self, and Me, and Mine, and We and Ours, and the like, and these are departed. It no longer says, “I love myself, or this or that, or what not.” And if you were to ask Love, “What loves thou?” she would answer, “I love Goodness.” “Wherefore?” “Because it is good, and for the sake of Goodness.” So it is good and just and right to deem that if there were ought better than God, that must be loved better than God. And thus God loves not Himself as Himself, but as Goodness. And if there were, and He knew, ought better than God, He would love that and not Himself. Thus the Self and the Me are wholly sundered from God, and belong to Him only in so far as they are necessary for Him to be a Person.
Behold! all that we have said must indeed come to pass in a Godlike man, or one who is truly “made a partaker of the divine nature”; for else he would not be truly such.

                               CHAPTER XXXIII

     How when a Man is made truly Godlike, his Love is pure and unmixed, and he loves all Creatures, and doth his best for them.

    Hence it follows, that in a truly Godlike man, his love is pure and unmixed, and full of kindness, insomuch that he cannot but love in sincerity all men and things, and wish well, and do good to them, and rejoice in their welfare. Yea, let them do what they will to such a man, do him wrong or kindness, bear him love or hatred or the like, yea, if one could kill such a man a hundred times over, and he always came to life again, he could not but
love the very man who had so often slain him, although he had been treated so unjustly, and wickedly, and cruelly by him, and could not but wish well, and do well to him, and show him the very greatest kindness in his power, if the other would but only receive and take it at his hands. The proof and witness whereof may be seen in Christ; for He said to Judas, when he betrayed Him: “Friend, wherefore art thou come?” Just as if He had said: “Thou hates Me, and art Mine enemy, yet I love thee and am thy friend. Thou desires and rejoices in My affliction, and dost the worst thou canst unto Me; yet I desire and wish thee all good, and would fain give it thee, and do it for thee, if thou wouldst but take and receive it.” As though God in human nature were saying: “I am pure, simple Goodness, and therefore I cannot will, or desire, or rejoice in, or do or give anything but goodness. If I am to reward thee for thy evil and wickedness, I must do it with goodness, for I am and have nothing else.” Hence therefore God, in a man who is “made partaker of His nature,” desires and takes no revenge for all the wrong that is or can be done unto Him. This we see in Christ, when He said: “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.”
Likewise it is God’s property that He doth not constrain any by force to do or not to do anything, but He allows every man to do and leave undone according to his will, whether it be good or bad, and resists none. This too we see in Christ, who would not resist or defend Himself when His enemies laid hands on Him. And when Peter would have defended Him, He said unto Peter: “Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which My Father hath
given Me, shall I not drink it?” Neither may a man who is made a partaker of the divine nature, oppress or grieve any one. That is, it never enters into his thoughts, or intents, or wishes, to cause pain or distress to any, either by deed or neglect, by speech or silence.

                               CHAPTER XXXIV

     How that if a Man will attain to that which is best, he must forswear his own Will; and he who helps a Man to his own Will helps him to the worst Thing he can.

     Some may say: “Now since God wills and desires and doeth the best that may be to every one, He ought so to help each man and order things for him, that they should fall out according to his will and fulfill his desires, so that one might be a Pope, another a Bishop, and so forth.” Be assured, he who helps a man to his own will, helps him to the worst that he can. For the more a man follows after his own self-will, and self-will growth in him, the farther off is he from God, the true Good, for nothing burns in hell but self-will. Therefore it hath been said, “Put off your own will, and there will be no hell.” Now God is very willing to help a man and bring him to that which is best in itself, and is of all things the best for man. But to this end, all self-will must depart, as we have said. And God would fain give man His help and counsel thereunto, for so long as a man is seeking his own good, he doth not seek what is best for him, and will never find it. For a man’s highest good would be and truly is, that he should not seek himself nor his own things, nor be his own end in any respect, either in things spiritual or things natural, but should seek only the praise and glory of God and His holy will. This doth God teach and admonish us. Let him therefore who wishes that God should help him to what is best, and best for him, give diligent heed to God’s counsels and teachings, and obey His commandments; thus, and not else, will he have, and hath already, God’s help. Now God teaches and admonished man to forsake himself and all things, and to follow Him only. “For he who loves his soul,”[42] that is himself, and will guard it and keep it, “he shall lose it”; that is, he who seeks himself and his own advantage in all things, in so doing loses his soul. “But he who hates his soul for My sake shall keep it unto life eternal”; that is, he who forsakes himself and his own things, and gives up his own will, and fulfils God’s will, his soul will be kept and preserved unto Life Eternal.

                                CHAPTER XXXV

     How there is deep and true Humility and Poorness of Spirit in a Man who is “made a Partaker of the Divine Nature.”

Moreover, in a man who is “made a partaker of the divine nature,” there is a thorough and deep humility, and where this is not, the man hath not been “made a partaker of the divine nature.” So Christ taught in words and fulfilled in works. And this humility springs up in the man, because in the true Light he sees (as it also really is) that Substance, Life, Perceiving, Knowledge, Power, and what is thereof, do all belong to the True Good, and not to the creature; but that the creature of itself is nothing and has nothing, and that when it turns itself aside from the True Good in will or in works, nothing is left to it but pure evil. And therefore it is true to the very letter, that the creature, as creature, hath no worthiness in itself, and no right to anything, and no claim over any one, either over God or over the creature, and that it ought to give itself up to God and submit to Him because this is just. And this is the chief and most weighty matter.
Now, if we ought to be, and desire to be, obedient and submit unto God, we must also submit to what we receive at the hands of any of His creatures, or our submission is all false. From this latter article flows true humility, as indeed it doth also from the former.[43] And unless this verily ought to be, and were wholly agreeable to God’s justice, Christ would not have taught it in words, and fulfilled it in His life. And herein there is a veritable manifestation of God; and it is so of a truth, that of God’s truth and justice this creature shall be subject to God and all creatures, and no thing or person shall be subject or obedient to her. God and all the creatures have a right over her and to her, but she hath a right to nothing: she is a debtor to all, and nothing is owing to her, so that she shall be ready to bear all things from others, and also if needs be to do all things for others. And out of this grows that poorness of spirit of which Christ said: “Blessed are the poor in spirit” (that is to say, the truly humble), “for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven.” All this hath Christ taught in words and fulfilled with His life.

                               CHAPTER XXXVI

     How nothing is contrary to God but Sin only; and what Sin is in
Kind and Act.

Further ye shall mark: when it is said that such a thing or such a deed is
contrary to God, or that such a thing is hateful to God and grieves His
Spirit, ye must know that no creature is contrary to God, or hateful or
grievous unto Him, in so far as it is, lives, knows, hath power to do, or
produce ought, and so forth, for all this is not contrary to God. That an
evil spirit, or a man is, lives, and the like, is altogether good and of
God; for God is the Being of all that are, and the Life of all that live,
and the Wisdom of all the wise; for all things have their being more truly
in God than in themselves, and also all their powers, knowledge, life, and
the rest; for if it were not so, God would not be all good; And thus all
creatures are good. Now what is good is agreeable to God, and He will have
it. Therefore it cannot be contrary to Him.
But what then is there which is contrary to God and hateful to Him?
Nothing but Sin. But what is Sin? Mark this: Sin is nothing else than that
the creature wills otherwise than God wills, and contrary to Him. Each
of us may see this in himself; for he who wills otherwise than I, or whose
will is contrary to mine, is my foe; but he who wills the same as I, is my
friend, and I love him. It is even so with God: and that is sin, and is
contrary to God, and hateful and grievous to Him. And he who wills,
speaks, or is silent, doeth or leaves undone, otherwise than as I will,
is contrary to me, and an offence unto me. So it is also with God: when a
man wills otherwise than God, or contrary to God, whatever he doeth or
leaves undone, in short all that proceeds from him, is contrary to God
and is sin. And whatsoever Will wills otherwise than God, is against God’s
will. As Christ said: “He who is not with Me is against me.” Hereby may each
man see plainly whether or not he be without sin, and whether or not he be
committing sin, and what sin is, and how sin ought to be atoned for, and
wherewith it may be healed. And this contradiction to God’s will is what we
call, and is, disobedience. And therefore Adam, the I, the Self, Self-will,
Sin, or the Old Man, the turning aside or departing from God, do all mean
one and the same thing.

                               CHAPTER XXXVII

     How in God, as God, there can neither be Grief, Sorrow,
Displeasure, nor the like, but how it is otherwise in a Man who is
“made a Partaker of the Divine Nature.”

In God, as God, neither sorrow nor grief nor displeasure can have place, and
yet God is grieved on account of men’s sins. Now since grief cannot befall
God without the creature, this cometh to pass where He is made man, or when
He dwells in a Godlike man. And there, behold, sin is so hateful to God,
and grieves Him so sore, that He would willingly suffer agony and death, if
one man’s sins might be thereby washed out. And if He were asked whether He
would rather live and that sin should remain, or die and destroy sin by His
death, He would answer that He would a thousand times rather die. For to God
one man’s sin is more hateful, and grieves Him worse than His own agony and
death. Now if one man’s sin grieves God so sore, what must the sins of all
men do? Hereby ye may consider, how greatly man grieves God with his sins.
And therefore where God is made man, or when He dwells in a truly
Godlike man, nothing is complained of but sin, and nothing else is hateful;
for all that is, and is done, without sin, is as God will have it, and is
His. But the mourning and sorrow of a truly Godlike man on account of sin,
must and ought to last until death, should he live till the Day of Judgment,
or for ever. From this cause arose that hidden anguish of Christ, of which
none can tell or knows ought save Himself alone, and therefore is it
called a mystery.
Moreover, this is an attribute of God, which He will have, and is well
pleased to see in a man; and it is indeed God’s own, for it belongs not
unto the man, he cannot make sin to be so hateful to himself. And where God
fended this grief for sin, He loves and esteems it more than ought else;
because it is, of all things, the bitterest and saddest that man can endure.

     All that is here written touching this divine attribute, which God will
have man to possess, that it may be brought into exercise in a living soul,
is taught us by that true Light, which also teaches the man in whom this
Godlike sorrow works, not to take it unto himself, any more than if he
were not there. For such a man feels in himself that he hath not made it
to spring up in his heart, and that it is none of his, but belongs to God
alone.

                              CHAPTER XXXVIII

     How we are to put on the Life of Christ from Love, and not for the
sake of Reward, and how we must never grow careless concerning it,
or cast it off.

Now, wherever a man hath been made a partaker of the divine nature, in him
is fulfilled the best and noblest life, and the worthiest in God’s eyes,
that hath been or can be. And of that eternal love which loves Goodness as
Goodness and for the sake of Goodness, a true, noble, Christ-like life is so
greatly beloved, that it will never be forsaken or cast off. Where a man
hath tasted this life, it is impossible for him ever to part with it, were
he to live until the Judgment Day. And though he must die a thousand deaths,
and though all the sufferings that ever befell all creatures could be heaped
upon him, he would rather undergo them all, than fall away from this
excellent life; and if he could exchange it for an angel’s life, he would
not.
This is our answer to the question, “If a man, by putting on Christ’s
life, can get nothing more than he hath already, and serve no end, what good
will it do him?” This life is not chosen in order to serve any end, or to
get anything by it, but for love of its nobleness, and because God loves
and esteems it so greatly. And whoever says that he hath had enough of
it, and may now lay it aside, hath never tasted nor known it; for he who
hath truly felt or tasted it, can never give it up again. And he who hath
put on the life of Christ with the intent to win or deserve ought thereby,
hath taken it up as an hireling and not for love, and is altogether without
it. For he who doth not take it up for love, hath none of it at all; he may
dream indeed that he hath put it on, but he is deceived. Christ did not lead
such a life as His for the sake of reward, but out of love; and love makes
such a life light and takes away all its hardships, so that it becomes
sweet and is gladly endured. But to him who hath not put it on from love,
but hath done so, as he dreams, for the sake of reward, it is utterly
bitter and a weariness, and he would fain be quit of it. And it is a sure
token of an hireling that he wishes his work were at an end. But he who
truly loves it, is not offended at its toil or suffering, nor the length of
time it lasts. Therefore it is written, “To Serve God and live to Him, is
easy to him who doeth it.” Truly is so to him who doth it for love, but it
is hard and wearisome to him who doth it for hire. It is the same with all
virtue and good works, and likewise with order, laws, obedience to precepts,
and the like. But God rejoices more over one man who truly loves, than
over a thousand hirelings.

                               CHAPTER XXXIX

     How God will have Order, Custom, Measure, and the like in the
Creature, seeing that He cannot have them without the Creature,
and of four sorts of Men who are concerned with this Order, Law,
and Custom.

It is said, and truly, God is above and without custom, measure, and order,
and yet gives to all things their custom, order, measure, fitness, and the
like. The which is to be thus understood. God will have all these to be, and
they cannot have a being in Himself without the creature, for in God, apart
from the creature, there is neither order nor disorder, custom nor chance,
and so forth; therefore He will have things so that these shall be, and
shall be put in exercise. For wherever there is word, work, or change, these
must be either according to order, custom, measure and fitness, or according
to unfitness and disorder. Now fitness and order are better and nobler than
their contraries.
But ye must mark: There are four sorts of men who are concerned with
order, laws, and customs. Some keep them neither for God’s sake, nor to
serve their own ends, but from constraint: these have as little to do with
them as may be, and find them a burden and heavy yoke. The second sort obey
for the sake of reward: these are men who know nothing beside, or better
than, laws and precepts, and imagine that by keeping them they may obtain
the kingdom of Heaven and Eternal Life, and not otherwise; and him who
practices many ordinances they think to be holy, and him who omits any
part of them they think to be lost. Such men are very much in earnest and
give great diligence to the work, and yet they find it a weariness. The
third sort are wicked, false-hearted men, who dream and declare that they
are perfect and need no ordinances, and make a mock of them.
The fourth are those who are enlightened with the True Light, who do
not practice these things for reward, for they neither look nor desire to
get anything thereby, but all that they do is from love alone. And these are
not so anxious and eager to accomplish much and with all speed as the second
sort, but rather seek to do things in peace and good leisure; and if some
not weighty matter be neglected, they do not therefore think themselves
lost, for they know very well that order and fitness are better than
disorder, and therefore they choose to walk orderly, yet know at the same
time that their salvation hangs not thereon. Therefore they are not in so
great anxiety as the others. These men are judged and blamed by both the
other parties, for the hirelings say that they neglect their duties and
accuse them of being unrighteous, and the like; and the others (that is, the
Free Spirits[44]) hold them in derision, and say that they cleave unto weak
and beggarly elements, and the like. But these enlightened men keep the
middle path, which is also the best; for a lover of God is better and dearer
to Him than a hundred thousand hirelings. It is the same with all their
doings.
Furthermore, ye must mark, that to receive God’s commands and His
counsel and all His teaching, is the privilege of the inward man, after that
he is united with God. And where there is such a union, the outward man is
surely taught and ordered by the inward man, so that no outward commandment
or teaching is needed. But the commandments and laws of men belong to the
outer man, and are needful for those men who know nothing better, for else
they would not know what to do and what to refrain from, and would become
like unto the dogs or other beasts.

                                 CHAPTER XL

     A good Account of the False Light and its Kind.

Now I have said that there is a False Light; but I must tell you more
particularly what it is, and what belongs thereunto. Behold, all that is
contrary to the True Light belongs unto the False. To the True Light it
belongs of necessity, that it seeks not to deceive, nor consents that
any should be wronged or deceived, neither can it be deceived. But the false
is deceived and a delusion, and deceives others along with itself. For God
deceives no man, nor wills that any should be deceived, and so it is with
His True Light. Now mark, the True Light is God or divine, but the False
Light is Nature or natural. Now it belongs to God, that He is neither this
nor that, neither wills nor desires, nor seeks anything in the man whom
He hath made a partaker of the divine nature, save Goodness as Goodness, and
for the sake of Goodness. This is the token of the True Light. But to the
Creature and Nature it belongs to be somewhat, this or that, and to intend
and seek something, this or that, and not simply what is good without any
Wherefore. And as God and the True Light are without all self-will,
selfishness, and self-seeking, so do the I, the Me, the Mine, and the like,
belong unto the natural and false Light; for in all things it seeks itself
and its own ends, rather than Goodness for the sake of Goodness. This is its
property, and the property of nature or the carnal man in each of us.
Now mark how it first cometh to be deceived. It doth not desire nor
choose Goodness as Goodness, and for the sake of Goodness, but desires and
chooses itself and its own ends, rather than the Highest Good; and this is
an error, and is the first deception.
Secondly, it dreams itself to be that which it is not, for it
dreams itself to be God, and is truly nothing but nature. And because it
imagines itself to be God, it takes to itself what belongs to God; and
not that which is God’s, when He is made man, or dwells in a Godlike man,
but that which is God’s, and belongs unto Him, as He is in eternity,
without the creature. For, as it is said, God needs nothing, is free, not
bound to work, apart by Himself, above all things, and so forth (which is
all true); and God is unchangeable, not to be moved by anything, and is
without conscience, and what He doeth that is well done; “So will I be,”
says the False Light, “for the more like God one is, the better one is, and
therefore I will be like God and will be God, and will sit and go and stand
at His right hand”: as Lucifer the Evil Spirit also said.[45] Now God in
Eternity is without contradiction, suffering and grief, and nothing can hurt
or vex Him of all that is or befalls. But with God, when He is made Man,
it is otherwise.
In a word: all that can be deceived is deceived by this False Light.
Now since all is deceived by this False Light that can be deceived, and all
that is creature and nature, and all that is not God nor of God, may be
deceived, and since this False Light itself is nature, it is possible for it
to be deceived. And therefore it becomes and is deceived by itself, in that
it rises and climbs to such a height that it dreams itself to be above
nature, and fancies it to be impossible for nature or any creature to get
so high, and therefore it cometh to imagine itself God. And hence it takes
unto itself all that belongs unto God, and specially what is His as He is
in Eternity, and not as He is made Man. Therefore it thinks and declared
itself to be above all works, words, customs, laws and order, and above that
life which Christ led in the body which He possessed in His holy human
nature. So likewise it professes to remain unmoved by any of the creature’s
works; whether they be good or evil, against God or not, is all alike to it;
and it keeps itself apart from all things, like God in Eternity, and all
that belongs to God and to no creature it takes unto itself, and vainly
dreams that this belongs unto it; and deems itself well worthy of all
this, and that it is just and right that all creatures should serve it, and
do it homage. And thus no contradiction, suffering or grief is left unto it;
indeed nothing but a mere bodily and carnal perceiving: this must remain
until the death of the body, and what suffering may accrue there from.
Furthermore, this False Light imagines, and says, that it has got beyond
Christ’s life in the flesh, and that outward things have lost all power to
touch it or give it pain, as it was with Christ after His resurrection,
together with many other strange and false conceits which arise and grow up
from these.
And now since this False Light is nature, it possesses the property of
nature, which is to intend and seek itself and its own in all things, and
what may be most expedient, easy and pleasant to nature and itself. And
because it is deceived, it imagines and proclaims it to be best that each
should seek and do what is best for himself. It refuses also to take
knowledge of any Good but its own, that which it vainly fancies to be Good.
And if one speak to it of the One, true, everlasting Good, which is neither
this nor that, it knows nothing thereof, and thinks scorn of it. And
this is not unreasonable, for nature as nature cannot attain thereunto. Now
this False Light is merely nature, and therefore it cannot attain thereunto.

     Further, this False Light says that it hath got above conscience and
the sense of sin, and that whatever it doeth is right, Yea, it was said by
such a false Free Spirit, who was in this error, that if he had killed ten
men he should have as little sense of guilt as if he had killed a dog.
Briefly: this false and deceived Light flees all that is harsh and contrary
to nature, for this belongs to it, seeing that it is nature. And seeing
also that it is so utterly deceived as to dream that it is God, it were
ready to swear by all that is holy, that it knows truly what is best, and
that both in belief and practice it hath reached the very summit. For this
cause it cannot be converted or guided into the right path, even as it is
with the Evil Spirit.
Mark further: in so far as this Light imagines itself to be God and
takes His attributes unto itself, it is Lucifer, the Evil Spirit; but in so
far as it sets at nought the life of Christ, and other things belonging
to the True Light, which have been taught and fulfilled by Christ, it is
Antichrist, for it teaches contrary to Christ. And as this Light is
deceived by its own cunning and discernment, so all that is not God, or of
God, is deceived by it, that is, all men who are not enlightened by the True
Light and its love. For all who are enlightened by the True Light can never
more be deceived, but whoso hath it not and chooses to walk by the False
Light, he is deceived.
This comes, that all men in whom the True Light is not, are
bent upon themselves, and think much of themselves, and seek and propose
their own ends in all things, and whatever is most pleasant and convenient
to themselves they hold to be best. And whoso declared the same to be best,
and helps and teaches them to attain it, him they follow after, and
maintain to be the best and wisest of teachers. Now the False Light teaches
them this very doctrine, and showed them all the means to come by their
desire; therefore all those follow after it, who know not the True Light.
And thus they are together deceived.
It is said of Antichrist, that when he cometh, he who hath not the seal
of God in his forehead, follows after him, but as many as have the seal
follow not after him. This agrees with what hath been said. It is indeed
true, that it is good for a man that he should desire, or come by his own
good. But this cannot come to pass so long as a man is seeking, or purposing
his own good; for if he is to find and come by his own highest good, he must
lose it that he may find it. As Christ said: “He who loves his life shall
lose it.” That is; he shall forsake and die to the desires of the flesh, and
shall not obey his own will nor the lusts of the body, but obey the commands
of God and those who are in authority over him, and not seek his own, either
in spiritual or natural things, but only the praise and glory of God in all
things. For he who thus loses his life shall find it again in Eternal Life.
That is: all the goodness, help, comfort, and joy which are in the creature,
in heaven or on earth, a true lover of God fended comprehended in God
Himself; yea, unspeakably more, and as much nobler and more perfect as God
the Creator is better, nobler, and more perfect than His creature. But by
these excellences in the creature the False Light is deceived, and seeks
nothing but itself and its own in all things. Therefore it cometh never to
the right way.
Further, this False Light says, that we should be without conscience
or sense of sin, and that it is a weakness and folly to have anything to do
with them: and this it will prove by saying that Christ was without
conscience or sense of sin. We may answer and say: Satan is also without
them, and is none the better for that. Mark what a sense of sin is. It is
that we perceive how man has turned away from God in his will (this is what
we call sin), and that this is man’s fault, not God’s, for God is guiltless
of sin. Now, who is there that knows himself to be free from sin save
Christ alone? Scarcely will any other affirm this. Now he who is without
sense of sin is either Christ or the Evil Spirit.
Briefly: where this True Light is, there is a true, just life such as
God loves and esteems. And if the man’s life is not perfect as Christ’s
was, yet it is framed and built after His, and his life is loved, together
with all that agrees with decency, order, and all other virtues, and all
Self-will, I, Mine, Me, and the like, is lost; nothing is purposed or sought
but Goodness, for the sake of Goodness, and as Goodness. But where that
False Light is, there men become heedless of Christ’s life and all virtue,
and seek and intend whatever is convenient and pleasant to nature. From this
arises a false, licentious freedom, so that men grow regardless and
careless of everything. For the True Light is God’s seed, and therefore it
brings forth the fruits of God. And so likewise the False Light is the
seed of the Devil; and where that is sown, the fruits of the Devil spring up
— nay, the very Devil himself. This ye may understand by giving heed to
what hath been said.

                                CHAPTER XLI

     Now that he is to be called, and is truly, a Partaker of the
Divine Nature, who is illuminated with the Divine Light, and
inflamed with Eternal Love, and how Light and Knowledge are worth
nothing without Love.

Some may ask, “What is it to be a ‘partaker of the divine nature,’ or a
Godlike man?” Answer: he who is imbued with or illuminated by the Eternal or
divine Light, and inflamed or consumed with Eternal or divine love, he is a
Godlike man and a partaker of the divine nature; and of the nature of this
True Light we have said somewhat already.
But ye must know that this Light or knowledge is worth nothing without
Love. This ye may see if ye call to mind, that though a man may know very
well what is virtue or wickedness, yet if he doth not love virtue, he is not
virtuous, for he obeys vice. But if he loves virtue he follows after
it, and his love makes him an enemy to wickedness, so that he will not do
or practice it, and hates it also in other men; and he loves virtue so
that he would not leave a virtue unpracticed even if he might, and this for
no reward, but simply for the love of virtue. And to him virtue is its own
reward, and he is content therewith, and would take no treasure or riches in
exchange for it. Such an one is already a virtuous man, or he is in the way
to be so. And he who is a truly virtuous man would not cease to be so, to
gain the whole world, yea, he would rather die a miserable death.
It is the same with justice. Many a man knows full well what is just
or unjust, and yet neither is nor ever will become a just man. For he loves
not justice, and therefore he works wickedness and injustice. If he loved
justice, he would not do an unjust thing; for he would feel such hatred and
indignation towards injustice wherever he saw it, that he would do or suffer
anything that injustice might be put an end to, and men might become just.
And he would rather die than do an injustice, and all this for nothing but
the love of justice. And to him, justice is her own reward, and rewards
him with herself; and so there lives a just man, and he would rather die a
thousand times over than live as an unjust man. It is the same with truth: a
man may know full well what is true or a lie, but if he loves not the truth
he is not a true man; but if he loves, it is with truth even as with
justice. Of justice speaks Isaiah in the fifth chapter: “Woe unto them
that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light
for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!”
Thus may we perceive that knowledge and light profit nothing without
Love. We see this in the Evil Spirit; he perceives and knows good and
evil, right and wrong, and the like; but since he hath no love for the good
that he sees, he becomes not good, as he would if he had any love for the
truth and other virtues which he sees. It is indeed true that Love must be
guided and taught of Knowledge, but if Knowledge be not followed by love, it
will avail nothing. It is the same with God and divine things. Let a man
know much about God and divine things, nay, dream that he sees and
understands what God Himself is, if he have not Love, he will never become
like unto God, or a “partaker of the divine nature.” But if there be true
Love along with his knowledge, he cannot but cleave to God, and forsake all
that is not God or of Him, and hate it and fight against it, and find it a
cross and a sorrow.
And this Love so makes a man one with God, that he can nevermore be
separated from Him.

                                CHAPTER XLII

     A Question: whether we can know God and not love Him, and how
there are two kinds of Light and Love — a true and a false.

Here is an honest question; namely, it hath been said that he who knows
God and loves Him not, will never be saved by his knowledge; the which
sounds as if we might know God and not love Him. Yet we have said elsewhere,
that where God is known, He is also loved, and whosoever knows God must
love Him. How may these things agree? Here ye must mark one thing. We have
spoken of two Lights — a True and a False. So also there are two kinds of
Love, a True and a False. And each kind of Love is taught or guided by its
own kind of Light or Reason. Now, the True Light makes True Love, and the
False Light makes False Love; for whatever Light deems to be best, she
delivers unto Love as the best, and bids her love it, and Love obeys,
and fulfils her commands.
Now, as we have said, the False Light is natural, and is Nature
herself. Therefore every property belongs unto it which belongs unto
nature, such as the Me, the Mine, the Self, and the like; and therefore it
must needs be deceived in itself and be false; for no I, Me, or Mine, ever
came to the True Light or Knowledge undeceived, save once only; to wit, in
God made Man. And if we are to come to the knowledge of the simple Truth,
all these must depart and perish. And in particular it belongs to the
natural Light that it would fain know or learn much, if it were possible,
and hath great pleasure, delight and glorying in its discernment and
knowledge; and therefore it is always longing to know more and more, and
never cometh to rest and satisfaction, and the more it learns and knows,
the more doth it delight and glory therein. And when it hath come so high,
that it thinks to know all things and to be above all things, it stands
on its highest pinnacle of delight and glory, and then it holds Knowledge
to be the best and noblest of all things, and therefore it teaches Love to
love knowledge and discernment as the best and most excellent of all things.
Behold, then knowledge and discernment come to be more loved than that which
is discerned, for the false natural Light loves its knowledge and powers,
which are itself, more than that which is known. And were it possible that
this false natural Light should understand the simple Truth, as it is in God
and in truth, it still would not lose its own property, that is, it would
not depart from itself and its own things. Behold, in this sense there is
knowledge without the love of that which is or may be known.
Also this Light rises and climbs so high that it vainly thinks
that it knows God and the pure, simple Truth, and thus it loves itself in
Him. And it is true that God can be known only by God. Wherefore as this
Light vainly thinks to understand God, it imagines itself to be God, and
gives itself out to be God, and wishes to be accounted so, and thinks
itself to be above all things, and well worthy of all things, and that it
hath a right to all things, and hath got beyond all things, such as
commandments, laws, and virtue, and even beyond Christ and a Christian life,
and sets all these at nought, for it doth not set up to be Christ, but
the Eternal God. And this is because Christ’s life is distasteful and
burdensome to nature, therefore she will have nothing to do with it; but to
be God in eternity and not man, or to be Christ as He was after His
resurrection, is all easy, and pleasant, and comfortable to nature, and so
she holds it to be best. Behold, with this false and deluded Love,
something may be known without being loved, for the seeing and knowing is
more loved than that which is known. Further, there is a kind of learning
which is called knowledge; to wit, when, through hearsay, or reading, or
great acquaintance with Scripture, some fancy themselves to know much, and
call it knowledge, and say, “I know this or that.” And if you ask, “How dost
thou know it?” they answer, “I have read it in the Scriptures,” and the
like. Behold, this they call understanding, and knowing. Yet this is not
knowledge, but belief, and many things are known and loved and seen only
with this sort of perceiving and knowing.
There is also yet another kind of Love, which is especially false, to
wit, when something is loved for the sake of a reward, as when justice is
loved not for the sake of justice, but to obtain something thereby, and so
on. And where a creature loves other creatures for the sake of something
that they have, or loves God, for the sake of something of her own, it is
all false Love; and this Love belongs properly to nature, for nature as
nature can feel and know no other love than this; for if ye look narrowly
into it, nature as nature loves nothing beside herself. On this wise
something may be seen to be good and not loved.
But true Love is taught and guided by the true Light and Reason, and
this true, eternal and divine Light teaches Love to love nothing but the
One true and Perfect Good, and that simply for its own sake, and not for the
sake of a reward, or in the hope of obtaining anything, but simply for the
Love of Goodness, because it is good and hath a right to be loved. And all
that is thus seen by the help of the True Light must also be loved of the
True Love. Now that Perfect Good, which we call God, cannot be perceived but
by the True Light; therefore He must be loved wherever He is seen or made
known.

                               CHAPTER XLIII

     Whereby we may know a Man who is made a partaker of the divine
Nature, and what belongs unto him; and further, what is the
token of a False Light, and a False Free-Thinker.

Further mark ye; that when the True Love and True Light are in a man, the
Perfect Good is known and loved for itself and as itself; and yet not so
that it loves itself of itself and as itself, but the one True and Perfect
Good can and will love nothing else, in so far as it is in itself, save the
one, true Goodness. Now if this is itself, it must love itself, yet not as
itself nor as of itself, but in this wise: that the One true Good loves the
One Perfect Goodness, and the One Perfect Goodness is loved of the One, true
and Perfect Good. And in this sense that saying is true, that “God loves
not Himself as Himself.” For if there were ought better than God, God would
love that, and not Himself. For in this True Light and True Love there
neither is nor can remain any I, Me, Mine, Thou, Your, and the like, but
that Light perceives and knows that there is a Good which is all Good and
above all Good, and that all good things are of one substance in the One
Good, and that without that One, there is no good thing. And therefore,
where this Light is, the man’s end and aim is not this or that, Me or Thee,
or the like, but only the One, who is neither I nor Thou, this nor that, but
is above all I and Thou, this and that; and in Him all Goodness is loved as
One Good, according to that saying: “All in One as One, and One in All as
All, and One and all Good, is loved through the One in One, and for the sake
of the One, for the love that man hath to the One.”
Behold, in such a man must all thought of Self, all self-seeking,
self-will, and what cometh thereof, be utterly lost and surrendered and
given over to God, except in so far as they are necessary to make up a
person. And whatever cometh to pass in a man who is truly Godlike, whether
he do or suffer, all is done in this Light and this Love, and from the same,
through the same, unto the same again. And in his heart there is a content
and a quietness, so that he doth not desire to know more or less, to have,
to live, to die, to be, or not to be, or anything of the kind; these become
all one and alike to him, and he complains of nothing but of sin only. And
what sin is, we have said already, namely, to desire or will anything
otherwise than the One Perfect Good and the One Eternal Will, and apart from
and contrary to them, or to wish to have a will of one’s own. And what is
done of sin, such as lies, fraud, injustice, treachery, and all iniquity, in
short, all that we call sin, cometh hence, that man hath another will than
God and the True Good; for were there no will but the One Will, no sin could
ever be committed. Therefore we may well say that all self-will is sin, and
there is no sin but what springs therefrom. And this is the only thing
which a truly Godlike man complains of; but to him, this is such a sore
pain and grief, that he would die a hundred deaths in agony and shame,
rather than endure it; and this his grief must last until death, and where
it is not, there be sure that the man is not truly Godlike, or a partaker of
the divine nature.
Now, seeing that in this Light and Love, all Good is loved in One and
as One, and the One in all things, and in all things as One and as All,
therefore all those things must be loved that rightly are of good report;
such as virtue, order, seemliness, justice, truth, and the like; and all
that belongs to God is the true Good and is His own, is loved and praised;
and all that is without this Good, and contrary to it, is a sorrow and a
pain, and is hated as sin, for it is of a truth sin. And he who lives in
the true Light and true Love, hath the best, noblest, and worthiest life
that ever was or will be, and therefore it cannot but be loved and praised
above any other life. This life was and is in Christ to perfection, else He
were not the Christ.
And the love wherewith the man loves this noble life and all goodness,
makes, that all which he is called upon to do, or suffer, or pass through,
and which must needs be, he doeth or endures willingly and worthily,
however hard it may be to nature. Therefore says Christ: “My yoke is easy,
and My burden is light.”[46] This cometh of the love which loves this
admirable life. This we may see in the beloved Apostles and Martyrs; they
suffered willingly and gladly all that was done unto them, and never asked
of God that their suffering and tortures might be made shorter, or lighter
or fewer, but only that they might remain steadfast and endure to the end.
Of a truth all that is the fruit of divine Love in a truly Godlike man is so
simple, plain, and straightforward, that he can never properly give an
account of it by writing or by speech, but only say that so it is. And he
who hath it not doth not even believe in it; how then can he come to know
it?
On the other hand, the life of the natural man, where he hath a lively,
subtle, cunning nature, is so manifold and complex, and seeks and
invents so many turnings and windings and falsehoods for its own ends, and
that so continually, that this also is neither to be uttered nor set forth.
Now, since all falsehood is deceived, and all deception begins in
self-deception, so is it also with this false Light and Life, for he who
deceives is also deceived, as we have said before. And in this false Light
and Life is found everything that belongs to the Evil Spirit and is his,
insomuch that they cannot be discerned apart; for the false Light is the
Evil Spirit, and the Evil Spirit is this false Light. Hereby we may know
this. For even as the Evil Spirit thinks himself to be God, or would fain
be God, or be thought to be God, and in all this is so utterly deceived that
he doth not think himself to be deceived, so is it also with this false
Light, and the Love and Life that is thereof. And as the Devil would fain
deceive all men, and draw them to himself and his works, and make them like
himself, and uses much art and cunning to this end, so is it also with this
false Light; and as no one may turn the Evil Spirit from his own way, so no
one can turn this deceived and deceitful Light from its errors. And the
cause thereof is, that both these two, the Devil and Nature, vainly think
that they are not deceived, and that it stands quite well with them. And
this is the very worst and most mischievous delusion. Thus the Devil and
Nature are one, and where nature is conquered the Devil is also conquered,
and, in like manner, where nature is not conquered the Devil is not
conquered. Whether as touching the outward life in the world, or the inward
life of the spirit, this false Light continues in its state of blindness
and falsehood, so that it is both deceived itself and deceives others with
it, wheresoever it may.
From what hath here been said, ye may understand and perceive more than
hath been expressly set forth. For whenever we speak of the Adam, and
disobedience, and of the old man, of self-seeking, self-will, and
self-serving, of the I, the Me, and the Mine, nature, falsehood, the Devil,
sin; it is all one and the same thing. These are all contrary to God, and
remain without God.

                                CHAPTER XLIV

     How nothing is contrary to God but Self-will and how he who
seeks his own Good for his own sake, fended it not; and how a
Man of himself neither knows nor can do any good Thing.

Now, it may be asked; is there aught which is contrary to God and the true
Good? I say, No. Likewise, there is nothing without God, except to will
otherwise than is willed by the Eternal Will; that is, contrary to the
Eternal Will. Now the Eternal Will wills that nothing be willed or loved
but the Eternal Goodness. And where it is otherwise, there is something
contrary to Him, and in this sense it is true that he who is without God is
contrary to God; but in truth there is no Being contrary to God or the true
Good.
We must understand it as though God said: “He who wills without Me,
or wills not what I will, or otherwise than as I will, he wills contrary
to Me, for My will is that no one should will otherwise than I, and that
there should be no will without Me, and without My will; even as without Me,
there is neither Substance, nor Life, nor this, nor that, so also there
should be no Will apart from Me, and without My will.” And even as in truth
all beings are one in substance in the Perfect Being, and all good is one in
the One Being, and so forth, and cannot exist without that One, so shall all
wills be one in the One Perfect Will, and there shall be no will apart from
that One. And whatever is otherwise is wrong, and contrary to God and His
will, and therefore it is sin. Therefore all will apart from God’s will
(that is, all self-will) is sin, and so is all that is done from self-will.
So long as a man seeks his own will and his own highest Good, because it
is His and for his own sake, he will never find it; for so long as he doeth
this, he is not seeking his own highest Good, and how then should he find
it? For so long as he doeth this, he seeks himself, and dreams that he
is himself the highest Good; and seeing that he is not the highest Good, he
seeks not the highest Good, so long as he seeks himself. But whosoever
seeks, loves, and pursues Goodness as Goodness and for the sake of
Goodness, and makes that his end, for nothing but the love of Goodness, not
for love of the I, Me, Mine, Self, and the like, he will find the highest
Good, for he seeks it aright, and they who seek it otherwise do err. And
truly it is on this wise that the true and Perfect Goodness seeks and
loves and pursues itself, and therefore it fended itself.
It is a great folly when a man, or any creature, dreams that he
knows or can accomplish aught of himself, and above all when he dreams
that he knows or can fulfill any good thing, whereby he may deserve much at
God’s hands, and prevail with Him. If he understood rightly, he would see
that this is to put a great affront upon God. But the True and Perfect
Goodness hath compassion on the foolish simple man who knows no better,
and ordered things for the best for him, and gives him as much of the good
things of God as he is able to receive. But as we have said afore, he
fended and receives not the True Good so long as he remaineth unchanged;
for unless Self and Me depart, he will never find or receive it.

                                CHAPTER XLV

     How that where there is a Christian Life, Christ dwells, and how
Christ’s Life is the best and most admirable Life that ever hath
been or can be.

He who knows and understands Christ’s life, knows and understands
Christ Himself; and in like manner, he who understands not His life, doth
not understand Christ Himself. And he who believeth on Christ, believeth
that His life is the best and noblest life that can be, and if a man believe
not this, neither doth he believe on Christ Himself. And in so far as a
man’s life is according to Christ, Christ Himself dwells in him, and if he
hath not the one neither hath he the other. For where there is the life of
Christ, there is Christ Himself, and where His life is not, Christ is not,
and where a man hath His life, he may say with St. Paul, “I live, yet not I,
but Christ lives in me.”[47] And this is the noblest and best life; for in
him who hath it, God Himself dwells, with all goodness. So how could there
be a better life? When we speak of obedience, of the new man, of the True
Light, the True Love, or the life of Christ, it is all the same thing, and
where one of these is, there are they all, and where one is wanting, there
is none of them, for they are all one in truth and substance. And whatever
may bring about that new birth which makes alive in Christ, to that let us
cleave with all our might and to nought else; and let us forswear and flee
all that may hinder it. And he who hath received this life in the Holy
Sacrament, hath verily and indeed received Christ, and the more of that life
he hath received, the more he hath received of Christ, and the less, the
less of Christ.

                                CHAPTER XLVI

     How entire Satisfaction and true Rest are to be found in God
alone, and not in any Creature; and how he who Will be obedient
unto God, must also be obedient to the Creatures, with all
Quietness, and he who would love God, must love all Things in One.

It is said, that he who is content to find all his satisfaction in God, hath
enough; and this is true. And he who fended satisfaction in aught which is
this and that, fended it not in God; and he who fended it in God, fended
it in nothing else, but in that which is neither this nor that, but is All.
For God is One and must be One, and God is All and must be All. And now what
is, and is not One, is not God; and what is, and is not All and above All,
is also not God, for God is One and above One, and All and above All. Now he
who fended full satisfaction in God, receives all his satisfaction from
One source, and from One only, as One. And a man cannot find all
satisfaction in God, unless all things are One to him, and One is All, and
something and nothing are alike.[48] But where it should be thus, there
would be true satisfaction, and not else.
Therefore also, he who will wholly commit himself unto God and be
obedient to Him, must also resign himself to all things, and be willing to
suffer them, without resisting or defending himself or calling for succor.
And he who doth not thus resign or submit himself to all things in One as
One, doth not resign or submit himself to God. Let us look at Christ. And he
who shall and will lie still under God’s hand, must lie still under all
things in One as One, and in no wise withstand any suffering. Such an one
were a Christ. And he who fights against affliction, and refuses to
endure it, is truly fighting against God. That is to say, we may not
withstand any creature or thing by force of war, either in will or works.
But we may indeed, without sin, prevent affliction, or avoid it, or flee
from it.
Now he who shall or will love God, loves all things in One as All, One
and All, and One in All as All in One; and he who loves somewhat, this or
that, otherwise than in the One, and for the sake of the One, loves not
God; for he loves somewhat which is not God. Therefore he loves it more
than God. Now he who loves somewhat more than God or along with God, loves
not God, for He must be and will be alone loved, and verily nothing ought to
be loved but God alone. And when the true divine Light and Love dwell in a
man, he loves nothing else but God alone, for he loves God as Goodness and
for the sake of Goodness, and all Goodness as One, and one as All; for, in
truth, All is One and One is All in God.

                               CHAPTER XLVII

     A Question: Whether, if we ought to love all Things, we ought to
love Sin also?

Some may put a question here and say: “If we are to love all things, must we
then love sin too?” I answer: No. When I say “all things,” I mean all Good;
and all that is, is good, in so far as it hath Being. The Devil is good in
so far as he hath Being. In this sense nothing is evil, or not good. But sin
is to will, desire, or love otherwise than as God doth. And Willing is not
Being, therefore it is not good. Nothing is good except in so far as it is
in God and with God. Now all things have their Being in God, and more truly
in God than in themselves, and therefore all things are good in so far as
they have a Being, and if there were aught that had not its Being in God, it
would not be good. Now behold, the willing or desiring which is contrary to
God is not in God; for God cannot will or desire anything contrary to
Himself, or otherwise than Himself. Therefore it is evil or not good, and is
merely nought.
God loves also works, but not all works. Which then? Such as are done
from the teaching and guidance of the True Light and the True Love; and what
is done from these and in these, is done in spirit and in truth, and what is
thereof, is God’s, and pleases Him well. But what is done of the false
Light and false Love, is all of the Wicked One; and especially what
happens, is done or left undone, wrought or suffered from any other will,
or desire, or love, than God’s will, or desire, or love. This is, and cometh
to pass, without God and contrary to God, and is utterly contrary to good
works, and is altogether sin.

                               CHAPTER XLVIII

     How we must believe certain Things of God’s Truth beforehand, ere
we can come to a true Knowledge and Experience thereof.

Christ said, “He that believeth not,” or will not or cannot believe, “shall
be damned.” It is so of a truth; for a man, while he is in this present
time, hath not knowledge; and he cannot attain unto it, unless he first
believe. And he who would know before he believeth, cometh never to true
knowledge. We speak not here of the articles of the Christian faith, for
every one believeth them, and they are common to every Christian man,
whether he be sinful or saved, good or wicked; and they must be believed in
the first place, for without that, one cannot come to know them. But we are
speaking of a certain Truth which it is possible to know by experience, but
which ye must believe in, before that ye know it by experience, else ye will
never come to know it truly. This is the faith of which Christ speaks in
that saying of His.

                                CHAPTER XLIX

     Of Self-will, and how Lucifer and Adam fell away from God through
Self-will.

It hath been said, that there is of nothing so much in hell as of self-will.
The which is true, for there is nothing else there than self-will, and if
there were no self-will, there would be no Devil and no hell. When it is
said that Lucifer fell from Heaven, and turned away from God and the like,
it meant nothing else than that he would have his own will, and would not
be at one with the Eternal Will. So was it likewise with Adam in Paradise.
And when we say Self-will, we mean, to will otherwise than as the One and
Eternal Will of God wills.

                                 CHAPTER L

     How this present Time is a Paradise and outer Court of Heaven, and
how therein there is only one Tree forbidden, that is, Self-will.

What is Paradise? All things that are; for all are goodly and pleasant, and
therefore may fitly be called a Paradise. It is said also, that Paradise is
an outer court of Heaven. Even so this world is verily an outer court of the
Eternal, or of Eternity, and specially whatever in Time, or any temporal
things or creatures, manifests or reminds us of God or Eternity; for the
creatures are a guide and a path unto God and Eternity. Thus this world is
an outer court of Eternity, and therefore it may well be called a Paradise,
for it is such in truth. And in this Paradise, all things are lawful, save
one tree and the fruits thereof. That is to say: of all things that are,
nothing is forbidden and nothing is contrary to God but one thing only: that
is, Self-will, or to will otherwise than as the Eternal Will would have it.
Remember this. For God says to Adam, that is, to every man, “Whatever thou
art, or doest, or leaves undone, or whatever cometh to pass, is all lawful
and not forbidden if it be not done from or according to thy will, but for
the sake of and according to My will. But all that is done from your own
Will is contrary to the Eternal Will.”
It is not that every work which is thus wrought is in itself contrary
to the Eternal Will, but in so far as it is wrought from a different will,
or otherwise than from the Eternal and Divine Will.

                                 CHAPTER LI

     Wherefore God hath created Self-will, seeing that it is so
contrary to Him.

Now some may ask: “Since this tree, to wit, Self-will, is so contrary to God
and the Eternal Will, wherefore hath God created it, and set it in
Paradise?”
Answer: whatever man or creature desires to dive into and understand
the secret counsel and will of God, so that he would fain know wherefore God
doeth this, or doeth not that, and the like, desires the same as Adam and
the Devil. For this desire is seldom from aught else than that the man
takes delight in knowing, and glories therein, and this is sheer pride.
And so long as this desire lasts, the truth will never be known, and the
man is even as Adam or the Devil. A truly humble and enlightened man doth
not desire of God that He should reveal His secrets unto him, and ask
wherefore God doeth this or that, or hinders or allows such a thing, and
so forth; but he desires only to know how he may please God, and become as
nought in himself, having no will, and that the Eternal Will may live in
him, and have full possession of him, undisturbed by any other will, and how
its due may be rendered to the Eternal Will, by him and through him.

     However, there is yet another answer to this question, for we may say:
the most noble and delightful gift that is bestowed on any creature is that
of perceiving, or Reason, and Will. And these two are so bound together,
that where the one is, there the other is also. And if it were not for these
two gifts, there would be no reasonable creatures, but only brutes and
brutishness; and that were a great loss, for God would never have His due,
and behold Himself and His attributes manifested in deeds and works; the
which ought to be, and is, necessary to perfection. Now, behold, Perception
and Reason are created and bestowed along with Will, to the intent that they
may instruct the will and also themselves, that neither perception nor will
is of itself, nor is nor ought to be unto itself, nor ought to seek or obey
itself. Neither shall they turn themselves to their own advantage, nor make
use of themselves to their own ends and purposes; for His they are from Whom
they do proceed, and unto Him shall they submit, and flow back into Him, and
become nought in themselves, that is, in their selfishness.
But here ye must consider more particularly, somewhat touching the
Will. There is an Eternal Will, which is in God a first Principle and
substance, apart from all works and effects,[49] and the same will is in
Man, or the creature, willing certain things, and bringing them to pass. For
it belongs unto the Will, and is its property, that it shall will
something. What else is it for? For it were in vain, unless it had some work
to do, and this it cannot have without the creature. Therefore there must be
creatures, and God will have them, to the end that the Will may be put in
exercise by their means, and work, which in God is and must be without work.
Therefore the will in the creature, which we call a created will, is as
truly God’s as the Eternal Will, and is not of the creature.
And now, since God cannot bring His will into exercise, working and
causing changes, without the creature, therefore it pleases Him to do so in
and with the creature. Therefore the will is not given to be exerted by the
creature, but only by God, who hath a right to work out His own will by
means of the will which is in man, and yet is God’s. And in whatever man or
creature it should be purely and wholly thus, the will would be exerted not
by the man but by God, and thus it would not be self-will, and the man would
not will otherwise than as God wills; for God Himself would move the will
and not man. And thus the will would be one with the Eternal Will, and flow
out into it, though the man would still keep his sense of liking and
disliking, pleasure and pain, and the like. For wherever the will is
exerted, there must be a sense of liking and disliking; for if things go
according to his will, the man liked it, and if they do not, he dislikes
it, and this liking and disliking are not of the man’s producing, but of
God’s. For whatever is the source of the will, is the source of these
also.[50] Now the will cometh not of man but of God, therefore liking and
disliking come from Him also. But nothing is complained of, save only what
is contrary to God. So also there is no joy but of God alone, and that which
is His and belongs unto Him. And as it is with the will, so is it also
with perception, reason, gifts, love, and all the powers of man; they are
all of God, and not of man. And wherever the will should be altogether
surrendered to God, the rest would of a certainty be surrendered likewise,
and God would have His right, and the man’s will would not be his own.
Behold, therefore hath God created the will, but not that it should be
self-will.
Now cometh the Devil or Adam, that is to say, false nature, and takes
this will unto itself and makes the same its own, and uses it for itself
and its own ends. And this is the mischief and wrong, and the bite that Adam
made in the apple, which is forbidden, because it is contrary to God. And
therefore, so long as there is any self-will, there will never be true love,
true peace, true rest. This we see both in man and in the Devil. And there
will never be true blessedness either in time or eternity, where this
self-will is working, that is to say, where man takes the will unto himself
and makes it his own. And if it be not surrendered in this present time,
but carried over into eternity, it may be foreseen that it will never be
surrendered, and then of a truth there will never be content, nor rest, nor
blessedness; as we may see by the Devil. If there were no reason or will in
the creatures, God were, and must remain for ever, unknown, unloved,
upraised, and unmoored, and all the creatures would be worth nothing, and
were of no avail to God. Behold thus the question which was put to us is
answered.[51] And if there were any who, by my much writing (which yet is
brief and profitable in God), might be led to amend their ways, this were
indeed well-pleasing unto God.
That which is free, none may call his own, and he who makes it his
own, commits a wrong. Now, in the whole realm of freedom, nothing is so
free as the will, and he who makes it his own, and suffers it not to
remain in its excellent freedom, and free nobility, and in its free
exercise, doeth a grievous wrong. This is what is done by the Devil and Adam
and all their followers. But he who leaves the will in its noble freedom
doeth right, and this doth Christ with all His followers. And whoso robs
the will of its noble freedom and makes it his own, must of necessity as
his reward, be laden with cares and troubles, with discontent, disquiet,
unrest, and all manner of wretchedness, and this will remain and endure in
time and in eternity. But he who leaves the will in its freedom, hath
content, peace, rest, and blessedness in time and in eternity. Wherever
there is a man in whom the will is not enslaved, but continues noble and
free, there is a true freeman not in bondage to any, one of those to whom
Christ said: “The truth shall make you free”; and immediately after, he
says: “If the Son shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed.”[52]
Furthermore, mark ye that where the will enjoys its freedom, it hath
its proper work, that is, willing. And where it chooses whatever it will
unhindered, it always chooses in all things what is noblest and best, and
all that is not noble and good it hates, and fended to be a grief and
offence unto it. And the more free and unhindered the will is, the more is
it pained by evil, injustice, iniquity, and in short all manner of
wickedness and sin, and the more do they grieve and afflict it. This we see
in Christ, whose will was the purest and the least fettered or brought into
bondage of any man’s that ever lived. So likewise was Christ’s human nature
the most free and single of all creatures, and yet felt the deepest grief,
pain, and indignation at sin that any creature ever felt. But when men claim
freedom for their own, so as to feel no sorrow or indignation at sin and
what is contrary to God, but say that we must heed nothing and care for
nothing, but be, in this present time, as Christ was after His resurrection,
and the like; — this is no true and divine freedom springing from the true
divine Light, but a natural, unrighteous, false, and deceitful freedom,
springing from a natural, false, and deluded light.
Were there no self-will, there would be also no ownership. In heaven
there is no ownership; hence there are found content, true peace, and all
blessedness. If any one there took upon him to call anything his own, he
would straightway be thrust out into hell, and would become an evil spirit.
But in hell everyone will have self-will, therefore there is all manner of
misery and wretchedness. So is it also here on earth. But if there were one
in hell who should get quit of his self-will and call nothing his own, he
would come out of hell into heaven. Now, in this present time, man is set
between heaven and hell, and may turn himself towards which he will. For the
more he hath of ownership, the more he hath of hell and misery; and the less
of self-will, the less of hell, and the nearer he is to the Kingdom of
Heaven. And could a man, while on earth, be wholly quit of self-will and
ownership, and stand up free and at large in God’s true light, and continue
therein, he would be sure of the Kingdom of Heaven. He who hath something,
or seeks or longs to have something of his own, is himself a slave; and
he who hath nothing of his own, nor seeks nor longs thereafter, is free
and at large, and in bondage to none.
All that hath here been said, Christ taught in words and fulfilled in
works for three-and-thirty years, and He teaches it to us very briefly when
He says: “Follow Me.” But he who will follow Him must forsake all things,
for He renounced all things so utterly as no man else hath ever done.
Moreover, he who will come after Him, must take up the cross, and the cross
is nothing else than Christ’s life, for that is a bitter cross to nature.
Therefore He says: “And he that takes not his cross, and follows after
Me, is not worthy of Me, and cannot be My disciple.”[53] But nature, in her
false freedom, she hath forsaken all things, yet she will have none
of the cross, and says she hath had enough of it already, and needs it no
longer, and thus she is deceived. For had she ever tasted the cross she
would never part with it again. He that believeth on Christ must believe all
that is here written.

                                CHAPTER LII

     How we must take those two Sayings of Christ: “No Man cometh unto
the Father, but by Me,” and “No Man cometh unto Me, except the
Father which hath sent Me draw him.”

Christ says: “No man cometh unto the Father, but by Me.”[54] Now mark how
we must come unto the Father through Christ. The man shall set a watch over
himself and all that belongs to him within and without, and shall so
direct, govern, and guard his heart, as far as in him lies, that neither
will nor desire, love nor longing, opinion nor thought, shall spring up in
his heart, or have any abiding-place in him, save such as are meet for God
and would beseem him well, if God Himself were made Man. And whenever he
becomes aware of any thought or intent rising up within him that doth not
belong to God and were not meet for Him, he must resist it and root it out
as thoroughly and as Speedily as he may.
By this rule he must order his outward behavior, whether he work or
refrain, speak or keep silence, wake or sleep, go or stand still. In short:
in all his ways and walks, whether as touching his own business, or his
dealings with other men, he must keep his heart with all diligence, lest he
do aught, or turn aside to aught, or suffer aught to spring up or dwell
within him or about him, or lest anything be done in him or through him,
otherwise than were meet for God, and would be possible and seemly if God
Himself were verily made Man.
Behold! he, in whom it should be thus, whatever he had within, or did
without, would be all of God, and the man would be in his life a follower of
Christ more truly than we can understand or set forth. And he who led such a
life would go in and out through Christ; for he would be a follower of
Christ: therefore also he would come with Christ and through Christ unto the
Father. And he would be also a servant of Christ, for he who cometh after
Him is His servant, as He Himself also says: “If any man serve Me, let him
follow Me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be.”[55] And he who
is thus a servant and follower of Christ, cometh to that place where Christ
Himself is; that is, unto the Father. As Christ Himself says: “Father, I
will that they also, whom Thou hast given Me, be with Me where I am.”[56]
Behold, he who walks in this path, “enters in by the door into the
sheepfold,” that is, into eternal life; “and to him the porter opened”;[57]
but he who enters in by some other way, or vainly thinks that he would
or can come to the Father or to eternal blessedness otherwise than through
Christ, is deceived; for he is not in the right Way, nor enters in by the
right Door. Therefore to him the porter opened not, for he is a thief and a
murderer, as Christ says.
Now, behold and mark, whether one can be in the right Way, and enter in
by the right Door, if one be living in lawless freedom or license, or
disregard of ordinances, virtue or vice, order or disorder, and the like.
Such liberty we do not find in Christ, neither is it in any of His true
followers.

                                CHAPTER LIII

     Consider that other saying of Christ, “No Man can come unto Me,
except the Father, which hath sent Me, draw him.”

Christ hath also said: “No man cometh unto Me, except the Father, which hath
sent Me, draw him.”[58] Now mark: by the Father, I understand the Perfect,
Simple Good, which is All and above All, and without which and besides which
there is no true Substance, nor true Good, and without which no good work
ever was or will be done. And in that it is All, it must be in All and above
All. And it cannot be any one of those things which the creatures, as
creatures, can comprehend or understand. For whatever the creature, as
creature (that is, in her creature kind), can conceive of and understand, is
something, this or that, and therefore is some sort of creature. And now if
the Simple Perfect Good were somewhat, this or that, which the creature
understands, it would not be the All, nor the Only One, and therefore not
Perfect. Therefore also it cannot be named, seeing that it is none of all
the things which the creature as creature can comprehend, know, conceive, or
name. Now behold, when this Perfect Good, which is unnamable, flows into
a Person able to bring forth, and brings forth the Only-begotten Son in
that Person, and itself in Him, we call it the Father.
Now mark how the Father draws men unto Christ. When somewhat of this
Perfect Good is discovered and revealed within the soul of man, as it were
in a glance or flash, the soul conceives a longing to approach unto the
Perfect Goodness, and unite herself with the Father. And the stronger this
yearning grows, the more is revealed unto her; and the more is revealed
unto her, the more is she drawn toward the Father, and her desire quickened.
Thus is the soul drawn and quickened into a union with the Eternal Goodness.
And this is the drawing of the Father, and thus the soul is taught of Him
who draws her unto Himself, that she cannot enter into a union with Him
except she come unto Him by the life of Christ. Behold, now she puts on
that life of which I have spoken afore.
Now see the meaning of these two sayings of Christ’s. The one, “No man
cometh unto the Father, but by Me”; that is, through My life, as hath been
set forth. The other saying, “No man cometh unto Me, except the Father draw
him”; that is, he doth not take My life upon him and come after Me, except
he be moved and drawn of My Father; that is, of the Simple and Perfect Good,
of which St. Paul says; “when that which is Perfect is come, then that
which is in part shall be done away.” That is to say; in whatever soul this
Perfect Good is known, felt and tasted, so far as may be in this present
time, to that soul all created things are as nought compared with this
Perfect One, as in truth they are; for beside or without the Perfect One, is
neither true Good nor true Substance. Whosoever then hath, or knows, or
loves, the Perfect One, hath and knows all goodness. What more then doth
he want, or what is all that “is in part” to him, seeing that all the parts
are united in the Perfect, in One Substance?
What hath here been said, concerns the outward life, and is a good
way or access unto the true inward life; but the inward life begins after
this. When a man hath tasted that which is perfect as far as is possible in
this present time, all created things and even himself become as nought to
him. And when he perceives of a truth that the Perfect One is All and above
All, he needs must follow after Him, and ascribe all that is good, such as
Substance, Life, Knowledge, Reason, Power, and the like, unto Him alone and
to no creature. And hence follows that the man claimed for his own
neither Substance, Life, Knowledge, nor Power, Doing nor Refraining, nor
anything that we can call good. And thus the man becomes so poor, that he
is nought in himself, and so are also all things unto him which are
somewhat, that is, all created things. And then there begins in him a
true inward life, wherein from henceforward, God Himself dwells in the
man, so that nothing is left in him but what is God’s or of God, and nothing
is left which takes anything unto itself. And thus God Himself, that is,
the One Eternal Perfectness, alone is, lives, knows, works, loves,
wills, doeth and refrained in the man. And thus, of a truth, it should
be, and where it is not so, the man hath yet far to travel, and things are
not altogether right with him.
Furthermore, it is a good way and access unto this life, to feel always
that what is best is dearest, and always to prefer the best, and cleave to
it, and unite oneself to it. First: in the creatures. But what is best in
the creatures? Be assured: that, in which the Eternal Perfect Goodness and
what is thereof, that is, all which belongs thereunto, most brightly
shines and works, and is best known and loved. But what is that which is
of God, and belongs unto Him? I answer: whatever with justice and truth we
do, or might call good.
When therefore among the creatures the man cleaves to that which is
the best that he can perceive, and keeps steadfastly to that, in
singleness of heart, he cometh afterward to what is better and better,
until, at last, he fended and tasted that the Eternal Good is a Perfect
Good, without measure and number above all created good. Now if what is best
is to be dearest to us, and we are to follow after it, the One Eternal Good
must be loved above all and alone, and we must cleave to Him alone, and
unite ourselves with Him as closely as we may. And now if we are to ascribe
all goodness to the One Eternal Good, as of right and truth we ought, so
must we also of right and truth ascribe unto Him the beginning, middle, and
end of our course, so that nothing remain to man or the creature. So it
should be of a truth, let men say what they will.
Now on this wise we should attain unto a true inward life. And what
then further would happen to the soul, or would be revealed unto her, and
what her life would be henceforward, none can declare or guess. For it is
that which hath never been uttered by man’s lips, nor hath it entered into
the heart of man to conceive.
In this our long discourse, are briefly comprehended those things which
ought of right and truth to be fulfilled: to wit, that man should claim
nothing for his own, nor crave, will, love, or intend anything but God
alone, and what is like unto Him, that is to say, the One, Eternal, Perfect
Goodness.
But if it be not thus with a man, and he take, will, purpose, or crave,
somewhat for himself, this or that, whatever it may be, beside or other than
the Eternal and Perfect Goodness which is God Himself, this is all too much
and a great injury, and hinders the man from a perfect life; wherefore he
can never reach the Perfect Good, unless he first forsake all things and
himself first of all. For no man can serve two masters, who are contrary the
one to the other; he who will have the one, must let the other go. Therefore
if the Creator shall enter in, the creature must depart. Of this be assured.

                                CHAPTER LIV

     How a Man shall not seek his own, either in Things spiritual or
natural but the Honor of God only; and how he must enter in by
the right Door, to wit, by Christ, into Eternal Life.

If a man may attain thereunto, to be unto God as his hand is to a man, let
him be therewith content, and not seek farther. This is my faithful counsel,
and here I take my stand. That is to say, let him strive and wrestle with
all his might to obey God and His commandments so thoroughly at all times
and in all things, that in him there be nothing, spiritual or natural, which
opposed God; and that his whole soul and body with all their members may
stand ready and willing for that to which God hath created them; as ready
and willing as his hand is to a man, which is so wholly in his power, that
in the twinkling of an eye, he moved and turns it whither he will. And
when we find it otherwise with us, we must give our whole diligence to amend
our state; and this from love and not from fear, and in all things
whatsoever, seek and intend the glory and praise of God alone. We must not
seek our own, either in things spiritual or in things natural. It must needs
be thus, if it is to stand well with us. And every creature owes this of
right and truth unto God, and especially man, to whom, by the ordinance of
God, all creatures are made subject, and are servants, that he may be
subject to and serve God only.
Further, when a man hath come so far, and climbed so high, that he
thinks and he stands sure, let him beware lest the Devil strew
ashes and his own bad seed on his heart, and nature seek and take her own
comfort, rest, peace, and delight in the prosperity of his soul, and he fall
into a foolish, lawless freedom and licentiousness, which is altogether
alien to, and at war with, a true life in God. And this will happen to that
man who hath not entered, or refuses to enter in by the right Way and the
right Door (which is Christ, as we have said), and imagines that he would
or could come by any other way to the highest truth. He may perhaps dream
that he hath attained thereunto, but verily he is in error.
And our witness is Christ, who declared: “Verily, verily, I say unto
you, He that enters not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbs up
some other way, the same is a thief and a robber.”[59] A thief, for he
robs God of His honor and glory, which belong to God alone; he takes
them unto himself, and seeks and purposes himself. A murderer, for he
slays his own soul, and takes away her life, which is God. For as the
body lives by the soul, even so the soul lives by God. Moreover, he
murders all those who follow him, by his doctrine and example. For Christ
says: “I came down from heaven, not to do Mine own will, but the will of
Him that sent Me.”[60] And again: “Why call ye Me Lord, Lord?”[61] as if he
would say, it will avail you nothing to Eternal life. And again: “Not every
one that says unto Me Lord, Lord, shall enter into the Kingdom of Heaven;
but he that doeth the will of My Father which is in Heaven.”[62] But He
says also: “If thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.”[63] And
what are the commandments? “To love the Lord thy God with all thy heart,
with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and to
love thy neighbor as thyself.”[64] And in these two commandments all others
are briefly comprehended.
There is nothing more precious to God, or more profitable to man, than
humble obedience. In His eyes, one good work, wrought from true obedience,
is of more value than a hundred thousand, wrought from self-will, contrary
to obedience. Therefore he who hath this obedience need not dread Him, for
such a man is in the right way, and following after Christ.
That we may thus deny ourselves, and forsake and renounce all things
for God’s sake, and give up our own wills, and die unto ourselves, and live
unto God alone and to His will, may He help us, who gave up His will to His
Heavenly Father, — Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be blessing for ever and
ever. Amen.

THE END

[1] Au)to[therefore]s e)phnqrw/phsen i(/na h(mei=s qeopoihqw=uen.–Athan.
Orat. de Incarn. Verbi, tom. I. page. 108.

[2] “Homines dixit Deos, ex gradia sua deificatos; non de substantia sua
natos,”–Aug. in Psalm xlix. (Ed. Bened. tom. iv. page 414.)

[3] Neander’s “Kirchengeschichte,” Band 6, S. 15, 20. This work and
Schmitz’s “Johannes Tauler von Strasburg,” are the authorities for most of
the facts here mentioned.

[4] As quoted by Neander. Kirchengeschichte, B. 6, S. 769.

[5] Neander, Kircshengeschichte, B. 6, S. 728.

[6] 1 Cor. 13:10.

[7] Isaiah 42:8.

[8] John 15:5.

[9] 1 Cor. 4:7.

[10] 2 Cor. 3:5.

[11] The writer is probably alluding to Ps. 49:8.

[12] John 3:8.

[13] Isaiah 57:21.

[14] John 14:27.

[15] John 16:33.

[16] Here Luther’s Edition has the following passage instead of the
remainder of this chapter: “Therefore we should at all times give diligent
heed to the works of God and His commandments, movings, and admonitions, and
not to the works or commandments or admonitions of men.”

[17] Eph. 4:22, 24.

[18] John 3:3.

[19] 1 Cor. 15:22.

[20] Matt. 12:30.

[21] 2 Peter 1:4.

[22] 1 Cor. 13:10.

[23] Matt. 16:24.

[24] Matt. 10:38.

[25] Luke 14:26.

[26] Rom. 8:14.

[27] Rom. 6:14.

[28] Matt. 10:20.

[29] See note 31.

[30] Matt. 10:22.

[31] The heading of this Chapter appears to have no relation to its
contents, while it perfectly suits the latter half of Chapter xxii, which
has nothing corresponding to it in the heading of that chapter. As however
the heading of Chapter xxiv. is common both to the Wurtzburg MS. and
Luther’s editions, the translator has no option but to retain it in its
present position.

[32] Matt. xi. 29.

[33] Matt. 5:20.

[34] Galat. 4:4.

[35] Matt. 20:28.

[36] Matt. 26:32, and 28:7-10.

[37] Luke 24:39.

[38] Rom. 8:14, and 6:14.

[39] This is, as a Person–“God” being used here as a proper name.–Tr.

[40] Cognition is the word which comes nearest to the original Erkenntniss,
but would not harmonize with the style of the translation.

[41] Or, be realized.

[42] Mark 8:35. Our authorized version uses the word “life” in this verse,
but as that would not quite bring out the force of the original, I have
ventured to use the same word for yuch here, by which it is translated in
the two succeeding verses.

Except in this and another passage, where, in quoting John 3:8, pneuma is
translated, as in Luther’s version, Spirit instead of Wind, our authorised
version has been always adhered to.–Tr.

[43] Namely, God’s having a right to our obedience.

[44] This is evidently an allusion to the “Brethren of the Free Spirit,”
mentioned in the Historical Introduction.

[45] Isaiah 14:13, 14.

[46] Matt. 11:30.

[47] Galatians 2:20.

[48] Literally aught and nought, itch und nicht; but aught means any thing,
the idea of the original is emphatically some thing, a part, not the
whole.–Tr.

[49] Or realization, wirklichkeit.

[50] This sentence is found in Luther’s edition, but not in that based on
the Wurtzburg Manuscript.

[51] Namely, why God hath created the will.

[52] John 8:32-36.

[53] Matt. 10:38, and Luke 14:27.

[54] John 14:6.

[55] John 12:26.

[56] John 17:24.

[57] John 10:1, 3.

[58] John 6:44.

[59] John 10:1.

[60] John 6:38.

[61] Luke 6:46.

[62] Matt. 7:21.

[63] Matt. 19:17.

[64] Luke 10:27.

Edited by Dr. Peiffer
Translated by Susanna Winkworth
Scanned by John H. Richards (jhr@elidor.demon.co.uk), March 1995Reprinted 1901, 1907
Scanned from the 1893 Golden Treasury Series edition
by John H. Richards (jhr@elidor.demon.co.uk), March 1995
Introductory material scanned from the 1907 reprint
by Harry Plantinga (W.H.Plantinga@wheaton.edu), 1996
This electronic text is in the public domain
This work was discovered and published in 1516 by Martin Luther, who said of it that “Next to the Bible and St. Augustine, no book has ever come into my hands from which I have learnt more of God and Christ, and man and all
things that are.” It has since appealed to Christians of all persuasions.

Theologia Germanica by a Friend of God (14th century Germany)

(This is not Theologia Germanica itself but an intro and excerpts)

 From the Preface by Charles Kingsley, 1854:
To those who really hunger and thirst after righteousness; and who therefore long to know what righteousness is, that they may copy it: To those who long to be freed, not merely from the punishment of sin after they die, but from sin itself while they live on earth; and who therefore wish to know what sin is, that they may avoid it: To those who wish to be    really justified by faith, by being made just persons by faith; and who cannot satisfy either their consciences or reasons by fancying that God looks on them as right, when they know themselves to be wrong, or that the God of truth will stoop to fictions (miscalled forensic) which would be considered false and unjust in any human court of law: To those who cannot help trusting that union with Christ must be something real and substantial, and not merely a metaphor, and a flower of rhetoric: To those, lastly, who cannot help seeing that the doctrine of Christ in every man, as the Indwelling Word of God, The Light who lights every one who comes into the world, is no peculiar tenet of the Quakers, but one which runs through the whole of the Old and New Testaments, and without which they would both be unintelligible, just as the same doctrine runs through the whole history of the Early Church for the first two centuries, and is the only explanation of them; To all these this noble little book will recommend itself; and may God bless the reading of it to them, and to all others no less.

Excerpt:

The best of created things must always be the dearest to us, and we must cleave to them, and unite ourselves to them, above all to those which we attribute to God as belonging to Him or divine, such as wisdom, truth, kindness, peace, love, justice, and the like. Hereby shall we order our outward man, and all that is contrary to these virtues we must eschew and flee from.

For a true lover of God, loveth Him or the Eternal Goodness alike, in having and in not having, in sweetness and bitterness, in good or evil report, and the like, for he seeketh alone the honour of God, and not his own, either in spiritual or natural things. And therefore he standeth alike unshaken in all things, at all seasons. Hereby let every man prove himself, how he standeth towards God, his Creator and Lord.

Many say they have no peace nor rest, but so many crosses and trials, afflictions and sorrows, that they know not how they shall ever get through them. Now he who in truth will perceive and take note, perceiveth clearly, that true peace and rest lie not in outward things: for if it were so, The Evil Spirit also would have peace when things go according to his will which is nowise the case.

And therefore we must consider and see what is that peace which Christ left to His disciples at the last, when He said: ‘My peace I leave with you, My peace I give unto you.’

There liveth no man on earth who may always have rest and peace without troubles and crosses, with whom things always go according to his will;      there is always something to be suffered here, turn which way you will.

And as soon as you are quit of one assault, perhaps two come in its place.  Thus then, Christ meant that inward peace which can break through all assaults and crosses of oppression, suffering, misery, humiliation and what more there may be of the like, so that a man may be joyful and patient therein, like the beloved disciples and followers of Christ.

Now he who liveth to himself after the old man, is called and is truly a child of Adam; and though he may give diligence to the ordering of his life, he is still the child and brother of the Evil Spirit. But he who liveth in humble obedience and in the new man which is Christ, he is, in like manner, the brother of Christ and the child of God.

That we may thus deny ourselves, and forsake and renounce all things for God’s sake, and give up our own wills, and die unto ourselves, and live unto God alone and to His will, may He help us, who gave up His will to His Heavenly Father, Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be blessing for ever and ever. Amen.

Excerpts from W.R. Inge on the background of the Rhineland Mystics

To understand German mysticism in the fourteenth century we must look at the great awakening of the thirteenth century–the age of chivalry in religion–the age of St. Louis, of Francis and Dominic, of Bonaventura and Thomas Aquinas. It was a vast revival, bearing fruit in a new ardour of pity and charity, as well as in a healthy freedom of thought. The Church, in recognising the new charitable orders of Francis and Dominic, and the Christianised Aristotelianism of the schoolmen, retained the loyalty and profited by the zeal of the more sober reformers, but was unable to prevent the diffusion of an independent critical spirit, in part provoked and justified by real abuses. Discontent was aroused, not only by the worldiness of the hierarchy, whose greed and luxurious living were felt to be scandalous, but by the widespread economic distress which prevailed over Western Europe at this period. The crusades periodically swept off a large proportion of the able-bodied men, of whom the majority never returned to their homes, and this helped to swell the number of indigent women, who, having no male protectors, were obliged to beg their bread. The better class of these female mendicants soon formed themselves into uncloistered charitable Orders, who were not forbidden to marry, and who devoted themselves chiefly to the care of the sick. These Beguines and the corresponding male associations of Beghards became very numerous in Germany. Their religious views were of a definite type. Theirs was an intensely inward religion, based on the longing of the soul for immediate access to God. The more educated among them tended to embrace a vague idealistic Pantheism. Mechthild of Magdeburg (1212-1277), prophetess, poetess, Church reformer, quietist, was the ablest of the Beguines. Her writings prove to us that the technical terminology of German mysticism was in use before Eckhart, and also that the followers of what the “Theologia Germanica” calls the False Light, who aspired to absorption in the Godhead, and despised the imitation of the incarnate Christ, were already throwing discredit on the movement. Mechthild’s independence, and her unsparing denunciations of corruption in high places, brought her into conflict with the secular clergy?.”
Meanwhile, the Church looked with favour upon the orthodox mystical school, of which Richard and Hugo of St. Victor, Bonaventura, and Albertus Magnus were among the greatest names. These men were working out in their own fashion the psychology of the contemplative life, showing how we may ascend through “cogitation, meditation, and speculation” to “contemplation,” and how we may pass successively through jubilus, ebrietas spiritus, spiritualis jucunditas, and liquefactio, till we attain raptus or ecstasy. The writings of the scholastic mystics are so overweighted with this pseudo-science, with its wire-drawn distinctions and meaningless classifications, that very few readers have now the patience to dig out their numerous beauties. They are, however, still the classics of mystical theology in the Roman Church, so far as that science has not degenerated into mere miracle-mongering.

ECKHART’S RELIGIOUS PHILOSOPHY
The truth which he values is that, as Mr Upton[xv] has well expressed it, “there is a certain self-revelation of the eternal and infinite One to the finite soul, and therefore an indestructible basis for religious ideas and beliefs as distinguished from what is called scientific knowledge. . . . This immanent universal principle does not pertain to, and is not the property of any individual mind, but belongs to that uncreated and eternal nature of God which lies deeper than all those differences which separate individual minds from each other, and is indeed that incarnation of the Eternal, who though He is present in every finite thing, is still not broken up into individualities, but remains one and the same eternal substance, one and the same unifying principle, immanently and indivisibly present in every one of the countless plurality of finite individuals.” It might further be urged that neither God nor man can be understood in independence of each other. A recent writer on ethics, not too well disposed towards Christianity, is, I think, right in saying: “To the popular mind, which assumes God and man to be two different realities, each given in independence of the other, . . . the identification of man’s love of God with God’s love of Himself has always been a paradox and a stumbling-block. But it is not too much to say that until it has been seen to be no paradox, but a simple and fundamental truth, the masterpieces of the world’s religious literature must remain a sealed book to us.”

Eckhart certainly believed himself to have escaped the pitfall of Pantheism; but he often expressed himself in such an unguarded way that the charge may be brought against him with some show of reason.

Love, Eckhart teaches, is the principle of all virtues; it is God Himself. Next to it in dignity comes humility. The beauty of the soul, he says in the true Platonic vein, is to be well ordered, with the higher faculties above the lower, each in its proper place. The will should be supreme over the understanding, the understanding over the senses. Whatever we will earnestly, that we have, and no one can hinder us from attaining that detachment from the creatures in which our blessedness consists.

Evil, from the highest standpoint, is only a means for realising the eternal aim of God in creation; all will ultimately be overruled for good. Nevertheless, we can frustrate the good will of God towards us, and it is this, and not the thought of any insult against Himself, that makes God grieve for our sins. It would not be worth while to give any more quotations on this subject, for Eckhart is not more successful than other philosophers in propounding a consistent and intelligible theory of the place of evil in the universe.
Eckhart is well aware of the two chief pitfalls into which the mystic is liable to fall–dreamy inactivity and Antinomianism. The sects of the Free Spirit seem to have afforded a good object-lesson in both these errors, as some of the Gnostic sects did in the second century. Eckhart’s teaching here is sound and good. Freedom from law, he says, belongs only to the “spark,” not to the faculties of the soul, and no man can live always on the highest plane. Contemplation is, in a sense, a means to activity; works of charity are its proper fruit. “If a man were in an ecstasy like that of St Paul, when he was caught up into the third heaven, and knew of a poor man who needed his help, he ought to leave his ecstasy and help the needy.” Suso tells us how God punished him for disregarding this duty. True contemplation considers Reality (or Being) in its manifestations as well as in its origin. If this is remembered, there need be no conflict between social morality and the inner life. Eckhart recognises that it is a harder and a nobler task to preserve detachment in a crowd than in a cell; the little daily sacrifices of family life are often a greater trial than self-imposed mortifications. “We need not destroy any little good in ourselves for the sake of a better, but we should strive to grasp every truth in its highest meaning, for no one good contradicts another.” “Love God, and do as you like, say the Free Spirits. Yes; but as long as you like anything contrary to God’s will, you do not love Him.”

There is much more of the same kind in Eckhart’s sermons–as good and sensible doctrine as one could find anywhere. But what was the practical effect of his teaching as a whole?

The aspiration of mysticism is to find the unity which underlies all diversity, or, in religious language, to see God face to face. From the Many to the One is always the path of the mystic. Plotinus, the father of all mystical philosophy in Europe (unless, as he himself would have wished, we give that honour to Plato), mapped out the upward road as follows:–At the bottom of the hill is the sphere of the “merely many”–of material objects viewed in disconnection, dull, and spiritless. This is a world which has no real existence; it may best be called “not-being” (“ein lauteres Nichts,” as Eckhart says), and as the indeterminate, it can only be apprehended by a corresponding indeterminateness in the soul. The soul, however, always adds some form and determination to the abstract formlessness of the “merely many.” Next, we rise to, or project for ourselves, the world of “the one and the many.” This is the sphere in which our consciousness normally moves. We are conscious of an overruling Mind, but the creatures still seem external to and partially independent of it. Such is the temporal order as we know it. Above this is the intelligible world, the eternal order, “the one-many,” das ewige Nu, the world in which God’s will is done perfectly and all reflects the divine mind. Highest of all is “the One,” the, Absolute, the Godhead, of whom nothing can be predicated, because He is above all distinctions. This Neoplatonic Absolute is the Godhead of whom Eckhart says: “God never looked upon deed,” and of whom Angelus Silesius sings:

“Und sieh, er ist nicht Wille,
Er ist ein’ ewige Stille.”

Plotinus taught that the One, being superessential, can only be apprehended in ecstasy, when thought, which still distinguishes itself from its object, is transcended, and knower and known become one. As Tennyson’s Ancient Sage says:

“If thou would’st hear the Nameless, and descend
Into the Temple-cave of thine own self,
There, brooding by the central altar, thou
May’st haply learn the Nameless hath a voice,
By which thou wilt abide, if thou be wise;
For knowledge is the swallow on the lake,
That sees and stirs the surface-shadow there
But never yet hath dipt into the Abysm.”

In the same way Eckhart taught that no creature can apprehend the Godhead, and, therefore, that the spark in the centre of the soul (this doctrine, too, is found in Plotinus) must be verily divine. The logic of the theory is inexorable. If only like can know like, we cannot know God except by a faculty which is itself divine. The real question is whether God, as an object of knowledge and worship for finite beings, is the absolute Godhead, who transcends all distinctions. The mediaeval mystics held that this “flight of the alone to the alone,” as Plotinus calls it, is possible to men, and that in it consists our highest blessedness. They were attracted towards this view by several influences. First, there was the tradition of Dionysius, to whom (e.g.) the author of the “Theologia Germanica” appeals as an authority for the possibility of “beholding the hidden things of God by utter abandonment of thyself, and of entering into union with Him who is above all existence, and all knowledge.” Secondly, there was what a modern writer has called “the attraction of the Abyss,” the longing which some persons feel very strongly to merge their individuality in a larger and better whole, to get rid not only of selfishness but of self for ever. “Leave nothing of myself in me,” is Crashaw’s prayer in his wonderful poem on St Teresa. Thirdly, we may mention the awe and respect long paid to ecstatic trances, the pathological nature of which was not understood. The blank trance was a real experience; and as it could be induced by a long course of ascetical exercises and fervid devotions, it was naturally regarded as the crowning reward of sanctity on earth. Nor would it be at all safe to reject the evidence, which is very copious, that the “dreamy state” may issue in permanent spiritual gain. The methodical cultivation of it, which is at the bottom of most of the strange austerities of the ascetics, was not only (though it was partly) practised in the hope of enjoying those spiritual raptures which are described as being far more intense than any pleasures of sense: it was the hope of stirring to its depths the subconscious mind and permeating the whole with the hidden energy of the divine Spirit that led to the desire for visions and trances. Lastly, I think we must give a place to the intellectual attraction of an uncompromising monistic theory of the universe. Spiritualistic monism, when it is consistent with itself, will always lean to semi-pantheistic mysticism rather than to such a compromise with pluralism as Lotze and his numerous followers in this country imagine to be possible.

But it is possible to go a long way with the mystics and yet to maintain that under no conditions whatever can a finite being escape from the limitations of his finitude and see God or the world or himself “with the same eye with which God sees” all things. The old Hebrew belief, that to see the face of God is death, expresses the truth under a mythical form. That the human mind, while still “in the body pent,” may obtain glimpses of the eternal order, and enjoy foretastes of the bliss of heaven, is a belief which I, at least, see no reason to reject. It involves no rash presumption, and is not contrary to what may be readily believed about the state of immortal spirits passing through a mortal life. But the explanation of the blank trance as a temporary transit into the Absolute must be set down as a pure delusion. It involves a conception of the divine “Rest” which in his best moments Eckhart himself repudiates. “The Rest of the Godhead,” he says, “is not in that He is the source of being, but in that He is the consummation of all being.” This profound saying expresses the truth, which he seems often to forget, that the world-process must have a real value in God’s sight–that it is not a mere polarisation of the white radiance of eternity broken up by the imperfection of our vision. Whatever theories we may hold about Absolute Being, or an Absolute that is above Being, we must make room for the Will, and for Time, which is the “form” of the will, and for the creatures who inhabit time and space, as having for us the value of reality. Nor shall we, if we are to escape scepticism, be willing to admit that these appearances have no sure relation to ultimate reality. We must not try to uncreate the world in order to find God. We were created out of nothing, but we cannot return to nothing, to find our Creator there. The still, small voice is best listened for amid the discordant harmony of life and death.

The search for God is no exception to the mysterious law of human nature, that we cannot get anything worth having–neither holiness nor happiness nor wisdom–by trying for it directly. It must be given us through something else. The recluse who lives like Parnell’s “Hermit”:”Prayer all his business, all his pleasure praise,”is not only a poor sort of saint, but he will offer a poor sort of prayers and praises. He will miss real holiness for the same reason that makes the pleasure-seeker miss real happiness. We must lose ourselves in some worthy interest in order to find again both a better self and an object higher than that which we sought

The life of the cloistered saint may be abundantly justified–for the spiritual activity of some of them has been of far greater service to mankind than the fussy benevolence of many “practical” busybodies–but the idea of social service, whether in the school of Martha or of Mary, ought surely never to be absent. The image of Christ as the Lover of the individual soul rather than as the Bridegroom of the Church was too dear to these lonely men and women.

Eckhart, as we have seen, was a busy preacher as well as a keen student, and some of the younger members of his school were even more occupied in pastoral work. If the tree is to be judged by its fruits, mysticism can give a very good account of itself to the Marthas as well as the Marys of this world.

THE GERMAN MYSTICS AS GUIDES TO HOLINESS
THIS little volume is a contribution to a “Library of Devotion,” and in the body of the work the reader will be seldom troubled by any abstruse philosophising. I have thought it necessary to give, in this Introduction, a short account of Eckhart’s system, but the extracts which follow are taken mainly from his successors, in whom the speculative tendency is weaker and less original, while the religious element is stronger and more attractive. It is, after all, as guides to holiness that these mystics are chiefly important to us. This side of their life’s work can never be out of date, for the deeper currents of human nature change but little; the language of the heart is readily understood everywhere and at all times. The differences between Catholic and Protestant are hardly felt in the keen air of these high summits. It was Luther himself who discovered the “Theologia Germanica” and said of it that, “next to the Bible and St Augustine, no book hath ever come into my hands whence I have learnt or would wish to learn more of what God and Christ and man and all things are. I thank God that I have heard and found my God in the German tongue, as I have not yet found Him in Latin, Greek, or Hebrew.” The theology of these mystics takes us straight back to the Johannine doctrine of Christ as the all-pervading Word of God, by whom all things were made and in whom all things hold together. He is not far from any one of us if we will but seek Him where He is to be found–in the innermost sanctuary of our personal life. In personal religion this means that no part of revelation is to be regarded as past, isolated, or external. “We should mark and know of a very truth,” says the author of the “Theologia Germanica,” “that all manner of virtue and goodness, and even the eternal Good which is God Himself, can never make a man virtuous, good, or happy, so long as it is outside the soul.” In the same spirit Jacob Boehme, 250 years later, says: “If the sacrifice of Christ is to avail for me, it must be wrought in me.” Or, as his English admirer, William Law, puts it: “Christ given for us is neither more nor less than Christ given into us. He is in no other sense our full, perfect, and sufficient Atonement than as His nature and spirit are born and formed in us.” The whole process of redemption must in a sense be reenacted in the inner life of every Christian. And as Christ emptied Himself for our sakes, so must we empty ourselves of all self-seeking. “When the creature claimeth for its own anything good, such as life, knowledge, or power, and in short whatever we commonly call good, as if it were that, or possessed that–it goeth astray.” Sin is nothing else but self-assertion, self-will. “Be assured,” says the “Theologia Germanica,” “that he who helpeth a man to his own will, helpeth him to the worst that he can.” He, therefore, who is “simply and wholly bereft of self” is delivered from sin, and God alone reigns in his inmost soul. Concerning the highest part or faculty of the soul, the author of this little treatise follows Eckhart, but cautiously. “The True Light,” he says, is that eternal Light which is God; or else it is a created light, but yet Divine, which is called grace.” In either case, “where God dwells in a godly man, in such a man somewhat appertaineth to God which is His own, and belongs to Him only and not to the creature.” This doctrine of divine immanence, for which there is ample warrant in the New Testament, is the real kernel of German mysticism. It is a doctrine which, when rightly used, may make this world a foretaste of heaven, but alas! the “False Light” is always trying to counterfeit the true. In the imitation of the suffering life of Christ lies the only means of escaping the deceptions of the Evil One. “The False Light dreameth itself to be God, and sinless”; but “none is without sin; if any is without consciousness of sin, he must be either Christ or the Evil Spirit.”
Very characteristic is the teaching of all these writers about rewards and punishments. Without in any way impugning the Church doctrine of future retribution, they yet agree with Benjamin Whichcote, the Cambridge Platonist, that “heaven is first a temper, then a place”; while of hell there is much to recall the noble sentence of Juliana of Norwich, the fourteenth-century visionary, “to me was showed no harder hell than sin.” “Nothing burneth in hell but self-will,” is a saying in the “Theologia Germanica.” They insist that the difference between heaven and hell is not that one is a place of enjoyment, the other of torment; it is that in the one we are with Christ, in the other without Him. “The Christlike life is not chosen,” to quote the “Theologia Germanica” once more, “in order to serve any end, or to get anything by it, but for love of its nobleness, and because God loveth and esteemeth it so highly. He who doth not take it up for love, hath none of it at all; he may dream indeed that he hath put it on, but he is deceived. Christ did not lead such a life as this for the sake of reward, but out of love, and love maketh such a life light, and taketh away all its hardships, so that it becometh sweet and is gladly endured.” The truly religious man is always more concerned about what God will do in him than what He will do to him; in his intense desire for the purification of his motives he almost wishes that heaven and hell were blotted out, that he might serve God for Himself alone.

Sundry Sayings of Meister Eckhart

Sayings of Meister Eckhart

Sermons of Meister Eckhart

The soul must long for God in order to be set aflame by God’s love; but if the soul cannot yet feel this longing, then it must long for the longing. To long for the longing is also from God.

There never was a struggle or a battle which required greater valor than that in which a man forgets or denies himself.

He who is always alone is worthy of God, and to him who is always at home is God present, and in him who stands always in the present does God the Father bear his Son unceasingly.
God is not only the Father of all good things but he is the mother of all things as well. He is father, for he is the cause of all things and their creator. He is the mother of all things as well, for when creatures have gotten their being from him he still stays with creatures to keep them in being. If God did not remain with creatures after they had started their own life, they would most speedily fall out of being. Falling from God means falling from being into nothingness. It is not so with other causes they can with safety quit the things they cause when these things have gotten being of their own. When the house exists its builder can depart, for it is not the builder alone that makes the house the materials of it he draws from nature. But God provides the creature with the whole of what it is, with form as well as matter, so he is bound to stay with it, or it will promptly drop out of existence.
The soul is no different from Christ, except in that it has a born nature and a created nature. Christ does not have this in his eternal person. If the soul shed her born nature and her created nature, she would be all the same, just essence itself. I say, put off your creature it is easy to shed the creature, for this is a labor of love and the greater the pain the greater the joy.
Whoever has three things is beloved of God: The first is riddance of possessions the second, of friends and the third is riddance of self.
God will never give himself openly to the soul…unless she brings her husband, that is to say, her whole free will.

Some people want to see God with their eyes as they see a cow and to love him as they love their cow-they love their cow for the milk and cheese and profit it makes them. This is how it is with people who love God for the sake of outward wealth or inward comfort. They do not rightly love God when they love him for their own advantage. Indeed, I tell you the truth, any object you have on your mind, however good, will be a barrier between you and the inmost truth.

“Merchandising Truth,” a Holy Week sermon by Meister Eckhart

Merchandising Truth
Meister Eckhart

Jesus entered the temple area and drove out all who were buying and selling there. -Matthew 21:12

We read in the Gospel how Holy Week began with Jesus entering the temple and driving out all those that bought and sold. He then rebuked the vendors of doves: “Get these things out of here!” He was so crystal clear in his command that it was if he said, “I have a right to this temple and I alone will be in it and have control of it.”

What does this have to say to us? The temple God wants to be master of is the human soul, which he created and fashioned just like himself. We read that God said, “Let us make man in our own image.” And he did it. He made each soul so much like himself that nothing else in heaven or on earth resembles him as much. That is why God wants the temple to be pure, so pure that nothing should dwell there except he himself. And that is the reason why he is so pleased when we really prepare our souls for him. When we do this, when he alone dwells in our hearts, he takes great comfort.

But who, exactly, are the people who buy and sell? Are they not precisely the good people? See! The merchants are those who only guard against mortal sins. They strive to be good people who do their good deeds to the glory of God, such as fasting, watching, praying and the like – all of which are good – and yet do these things so that God will give them something in exchange. Their efforts are contingent upon God doing something they ardently want to have done.

They are all merchants. They want to exchange one thing for another and to trade with our Lord. But they will be cheated out of their bargain – for what they have or have attained is actually given to them by God. Lest we forget, we do what we do only by the help of God, and so God is never obligated to us. God gives us nothing and does nothing except out of his own free will. What we are we are because of God, and whatever we have we receive from God and not by our own contriving. Therefore God is not in the least obligated to us – neither for our deeds nor for our gifts. He gives to us freely. Besides, Christ himself says, “Without me, you can do nothing.”

People are very foolish when they want to trade with God. They know little or nothing of the truth. And God will strike them and drive them out of the temple. Light and darkness cannot exist side by side. God himself is the truth. When he enters the temple, he drives out ignorance and darkness and reveals himself in light and truth. Then, when the truth is known, merchants must depart – for truth wants no merchandising!

God does not seek his own benefit. In everything he acts only out of love. Thus, the person who is united with God lives the same way – he is innocent and free. He lives for love without asking why, and solely for the glory of God, never seeking his own advantage. God alone is at work in him.

As long as we look for some kind of pay for what we do, as long as we want to get something from God in some kind of exchange, we are like the merchants. If you want to be rid of the commercial spirit, then by all means do all you can in the way of good works, but do so solely for the praise of God. Live as if you did not exist. Expect and ask nothing in return. Then the merchant inside you will be driven out of the temple God has made. Then God alone dwells there. See! This is how the temple is cleared: when a person thinks only of God and honors him alone. Only such a person is free and genuine.

Jesus went into the temple and drove out those that bought and sold. His message was bold: “Take this all away!” But observe that when all was cleared, there was nobody left but Jesus. And when he is alone he is able to speak in the temple of the soul. Observe this also, for it is certain. If anyone else is speaking in the temple of the soul, Jesus keeps still, as if he were not at home. And he is not at home wherever there are strange guests – guests with whom the soul holds conversation, guests who always seek to bargain. If Jesus is to speak and be heard the soul must be alone and quiet.

And what does Jesus say when the soul has been cleared? His word is a revelation of himself and everything the Father has said to him. He reveals the Father’s majesty with unmeasured power. If in your spirit you discover this power, you will possess a like power in whatever you do – a power that will enable you to live undividedly and pure. Neither joy nor sorrow, no, nor any created thing will be able to disrupt your soul. For Christ will remain and he will cast aside all that is insignificant and futile.

When Jesus is united with your soul, the soul’s tide moves back again into its own, out of itself and above all things, with grace and power back to its prime origin. Then your fallen, fleshly self will become obedient to your inner, spiritual self, and you will in turn have a lasting peace in serving God without condition or demand.

Meister Eckhart, “Merchandising Truth,” from Meister Eckhart: A Modern Translation, by Raymond Bernard Blakney, copyright © 1941 by Harper & Brothers. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers Inc.

The German Mystics

 

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Man never desires anything so earnestly
As God desires to bring a man to Himself, that he may know Him.
God is always ready, but we are very unready;
God is near to us, but we are far from Him;
God is within, but we are without;
God is at home, but we are strangers.
-Meister Eckhart

From the time of the apostles to the present, many followers of Jesus have desired to communicated to the rest of the world their communion with Him. They taught that the possibility of fuller communion lies before any single believer if they indeed possess this desire.

Before us is the option of trying to learn what they knew.

Paul wrote of his transportation through levels of heaven. Before Paul, and ever since to this present day, multitudes tell of times of spiritual calm and religious ecstasy when they were overwhelmed by the presence of God.

Something of this happened in the regions of Germany and the Rhinelands in the 13th and 14th centuries. A school of thought grew with Meister Eckhart as its founder, though he was using a vocabulary and forms already developed. His student Johan Tauler has left us passionate sermons, and the unknown writer of Theologica Germania contributed a work of  the same mysticism. They called themselves Friends of God and their way the Mystical Way. It was about prayer, but was truly a manner of perceiving everything. It is a life of abandonment to God through a passive acceptance of God and actively seeking and practicing virtues, chiefly humility.

They found this emptying to be of great benefit in learning to follow Jesus. For that alone their writings are worthy. However, we must appreciate their impact on their culture, the history of the Late Middle Ages, and how they were a bridge to the Reformation.

Martin Luther published Theologica Germanica and wrote, “Next to the Bible and Saint Augustine, no book hath ever come into my hands whence I have learnt or would wish to learn more of what God and Christ and man and all things are. I thank God that I have heard and found my God in the German tongue, as I have not yet found Him in Latin, Greek, or Hebrew.”

These writers shaped Luther and they and Luther still shape the Church.

Scholars have rediscovering in Luther’s works the preeminence of the theme “Union with Christ,” and how this may have something to do with his understanding of justification.

-Eric Swensson

William Ralph Inge (1860-1954), was Dean of St.Paul’s, London 1911-34. He was one of the best-known Churchmen of his time. He studied and wrote about Platonic spirituality. The following comes from him:

MEISTER ECKHART
It was in 1260, when Mechthild of Magdeburg was at the height of her activity, that Meister Eckhart, next to Plotinus the greatest philosopher-mystic, was born at Hocheim in Thuringia. It seems that his family was in a good position, but nothing is known of his early years. He entered the Dominican Order as a youth, perhaps at sixteen, the earliest age at which novices were admitted into that Order. The course of instruction among the Dominicans was as follows:–After two years, during which the novice laid the foundations of a good general education, he devoted the next two years to grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic, and then the same amount of time to what was called the Quadrivium, which consisted of “arithmetic, mathematics, astronomy, and music.” Theology, the queen of the sciences, occupied three years; and at the end of the course, at the age of twenty-five, the brothers were ordained priests. We find Eckhart, towards the end of the century, Prior of Erfurt and Vicar of Thuringia, then Lector Biblicus at Paris, then Provincial Prior of Saxony. In 1307 the master of the Order appointed him Vicar-General for Bohemia, and in 1311 he returned to Paris. We find him next preaching busily at Strassburg, and after a few more years, at Cologne, where the persecution of the Brethren of the Free Spirit was just then at its height. At Strassburg there were no less than seven convents of Dominican nuns, for since 1267 the Order had resumed the supervision of female convents, which it had renounced a short time after its foundation. Many of Eckhart’s discourses were addressed to these congregations of devout women, who indeed were to a large extent the backbone of the mystical movement, and it is impossible not to see that the devotional treatises of the school are strongly coloured by feminine sentiment. A curious poem, written by a Dominican nun of this period, celebrates the merits of three preachers, the third of whom is a Master Eckhart, “who speaks to us about Nothingness. He who understands him not, in him has never shone the light divine.” These nuns seem to have been fed with the strong meat of Eckhart’s mystical philosophy; in the more popular sermons he tried to be intelligible to all. It was not very long after he took up his residence at Cologne that he was himself attacked for heresy. In 1327 he read before his own Order a retractation of “any errors which might be found” (si quid errorum repertum fuerit) in his writings, but withdrew nothing that he had actually said, and protested that he believed himself to be orthodox. He died a few months later, and it was not till 1329 that a Papal bull was issued, enumerating seventeen heretical and eleven objectionable doctrines in his writings.

This condemnation led to a long neglect of Eckhart’s writings. He was almost forgotten till Franz Pfeiffer in 1857 collected and edited his scattered treatises and endeavoured to distinguish those which were genuine from those which were spurious. Since Pfeiffer’s edition fresh discoveries have been made, notably in 1880, when Denifle found at Erfurt several important fragments in Latin, which in his opinion show a closer dependence on the scholastic theology, and particularly on St Thomas Aquinas, than Protestant scholars, such as Preger, had been willing to allow. But the attempt to prove Eckhart a mere scholastic is a failure; the audacities of his German discourses cannot be explained as an accommodation to the tastes of a peculiar audience. For good or evil Eckhart is an original and independent thinker, whose theology is confined by no trammels of authority.

WRITERS OF THE SCHOOL OF ECKHART:

TAULER
Such are the main characteristics of the religious teachings which we find in the German mystics. Among the successors of Eckhart, from whose writings the following extracts are taken, the most notable names are those of Tauler, Suso, and Ruysbroek. From Tauler I have taken very little, because a volume of selections from his sermons has already appeared in this series. Accordingly, it will only be necessary to mention a very few facts about his life.

John Tauler was born at Strassburg about 1300, and studied at the Dominican convents of Strassburg and Cologne. At both places he doubtless heard the sermons of Eckhart. In 1329 the great interdict began at Strassburg, and was stoutly resisted by many of the clergy. It is a disputed point whether Tauler himself obeyed the Papal decree or not. His uneventful life, which was devoted to study, preaching, and pastoral work, came to an end in 1361. Like Eckhart, he had a favourite “spiritual daughter,” Margaret Ebner, who won a great reputation as a visionary.

THEOLOGIA GERMANICA
The “Theologia Germanica,” an isolated treatise of no great length by an unknown author, was written towards the end of the fourteenth century by one of the Gottesfreunde, a widespread association of pious souls in Germany. He is said to have been “a priest and warden of the house of the Teutonic Order at Frankfort.” His book is both the latest and one of the most important productions of the German mystical school founded by Eckhart. The author is a deeply religious philosopher, as much interested in speculative mysticism as Eckhart himself, but as thoroughly penetrated with devout feeling as Thomas a Kempis